Unsigned editorials violate the new spirit of transparency that is designed to minimize potential conflicts of interest and to place responsibility on authors in scientific journals. For example, unsigned editorials may lead to excessive criticism or praise if one knows that one will not be held publicly accountable for the statements. Most journals do not publish unsigned letters to the editor precisely for this reason.3–4 Also, unsigned editorials in a journal may falsely endow an opinion piece with greater authority than it would otherwise have, especially if only one or several members of the editorial board prepare the text. Finally, scientific journals are different from newspapers, which continue to use unsigned editorials. Readers of The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal know the editorial views of these newspapers on many social, cultural, political, and even scientific issues. Similarly, since science is not value-free, the editors of scientific journals may have points of view about many of these issues, for example, using embryonic stem cells for research. It is not acceptable, however, for scientific journals to have a collective and anonymous editorial point of view about questions that should be judged at least in part based on their scientific merit. For example, if editors choose to publish a scientific article, and to write an editorial about the article, such editorials should not be written anonymously, but should be signed by the authors of the editorial.