As reviewed above, arriving at the diagnosis of NSIP is a dynamic process involving the analysis and correlation of clinical, radiologic, and pathologic findings to achieve a unifying diagnosis. There are no prospective, randomized trials to guide the treatment of NSIP. Retrospective studies demonstrate that NSIP responds well to corticosteroids. The predominant cellular subgroup appears to have better response to steroids compared to the fibrotic subgroup. The optimal dosage and duration of steroid treatment is variable and largely depends on the therapeutic response, which can be monitored by serial chest imaging studies and pulmonary function tests. The typical initiating dosage of prednisone is 1 to 1.5 mg/ kg/d, with gradual tapering over few months. Relapses may occur with tapering of the steroids, which indicate a poor outcome. Some case reports and observational studies suggest that cytotoxic agents such as azathioprine, cytoxan, and cyclosporine A in combination with steroids may benefit the cases of NSIP unresponsive to steroids alone. Treatment response, frequency of relapses, and prognosis appear to be related to the degree of chronicity, the natural course of the underlying etiologic mechanism, and severity of fibrosis on histopathology. The prognosis is, in general, favorable as compared to the other idiopathic interstitial pneumonias, in particular UIP.