With this second edition of Minimally Invasive Cardiac Surgery, Doctors Goldstein and Oz have eloquently filled a needed niche by gathering together descriptions of the newest pioneering technologies in this field. Their text covers most new developments, including minimally invasive direct coronary artery bypass, off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting, off-pump totally endoscopic coronary artery bypass grafting, endoscopic conduit harvest, robotic valve surgery, percutaneous valve repair, ablation therapy, and novel anastomotic devices, with contributions from notable experts such as Mohr, Chitwood, Califiore, and others. The multiple authorship format offers the reader a wide-ranging review of techniques and opinions from different centers, especially important in a new field such as this where often exists a lack of consensus with respect to technological details. For each procedure, the authors provide an historical background along with an overview of the scientific basis, clinical results, and comparative studies. The text is supported by clear diagrams, tables, and an excellent bibliography. One must also bear in mind, however, that any text addressing rapidly evolving technologies may unavoidably lag behind the newest data. For example, the St. Jude symmetry automatic anastomosis device was withdrawn from the market after concerns about long-term patency, and newer techniques have emerged such as thoracoscopic ablation therapy for atrial fibrillation, neither of which made it into this edition of the book.