Study objectives: Airway neutrophil levels are increased in patients with severe asthma and during asthma exacerbations. Long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs), such as formoterol, reduce the number of asthma exacerbations. While β2-agonists may affect neutrophil function in vitro, it is uncertain whether they have effects on neutrophilic inflammation in asthmatic patients in vivo.
Design: In a double-blind randomized crossover study, we evaluated the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with formoterol (Turbuhaler), 24 μg bid, compared to placebo on sputum neutrophil numbers and interleukin (IL)-8 levels in asthmatic patients. Therapy with budesonide (administered via Turbuhaler), 400 μg bid for 4 weeks, was added at the end as a “gold standard” antiinflammatory effect comparison.
Patients: We studied 15 steroid-naïve nonsmoking patients who ranged from 19 to 51 years of age and had mild persistent asthma.
Results: Formoterol therapy significantly reduced sputum IL-8 levels and neutrophil numbers compared to placebo. There was a significant correlation between the reduction in sputum IL-8 levels and the number of neutrophils, indicating that formoterol may attenuate neutrophilic airway inflammation by inhibiting IL-8 production.
Conclusions: Our data suggest that the LABA formoterol reduces neutrophilic airway inflammation in patients with mild asthma and that this might be beneficial in preventing asthma exacerbations.