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Clinical Investigations: SURGERY |

Outcomes of Patients With Acute Respiratory Failure After Abdominal Surgery Treated With Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation*

Samir Jaber, MD, PhD; Jean-Marc Delay, MD; Gérald Chanques, MD; Mustapha Sebbane, MD; Eric Jacquet, MD; Bruno Souche, MD; Pierre-François Perrigault, MD; Jean-Jacques Eledjam, MD, PhD
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*From the Department of Anesthesiology, Intensive Care and Transplantation Unit (DAR B) [Drs. Jaber, Delay, Chanques, Sebbane, Souche, Perrigault, and Eledjam], and Department of Surgery (Dr. Jacquet), Saint Eloi Hospital, University Hospital of Montpellier, Montpellier, France.

Correspondence to: Samir Jaber, MD, PhD, Unité de Réanimation et de Transplantation-Département d’Anesthésie-Réanimation “B,” Chu de Montpellier Hopital, Saint Eloi 80, Avenue Augustin Fliche, 34295 Montpellier Cedex, France; e-mail: s-jaber@chu-montpellier.fr



Chest. 2005;128(4):2688-2695. doi:10.1378/chest.128.4.2688
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Objectives: Little is known about the physiologic and clinical effects of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NPPV) in patients who have acute respiratory failure (ARF) after abdominal surgery. We evaluated our clinical experience with the use of NPPV in the treatment of ARF after abdominal surgery.

Methods: We prospectively evaluated NPPV use during a 2-year period in a medical-surgical ICU of a university hospital. We documented demographic and diagnostic data, gas exchange, and clinical outcomes. We compared patients who were not intubated to those who were intubated after a trial of NPPV.

Results: Of 72 patients with ARF after abdominal surgery who were treated with NPPV, 48 patients avoided intubation (67%). Patients in the intubated and nonintubated groups had similar demographic characteristics, and similar American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status and simplified acute physiology score II scores at admission. The intubated group had a significantly lower Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) ratio (123 ± 62 mm Hg vs 194 ± 76 mm Hg, p < 0.01) and more extended bilateral alveolar infiltrates (67% vs 31%, p < 0.01) than the nonintubated group. Within the first NPPV observation period, the Pao2/Fio2 increased (+ 36 ± 29% [± SD], p = 0.04) and the respiratory rate decreased (28.2 ± 3.4 breaths/min vs 23.1 ± 3.8 breaths/min, p < 0.01) significantly only in the nonintubated group. The nonintubated group had significantly lower length of ICU stay (17.3 ± 10.9 days vs 34.1 ± 28.5 days, p < 0.01) and mortality rate (6% vs 29%, p < 0.01).

Conclusion: NPPV may be an alternative to conventional ventilation in selected patients with ARF after abdominal surgery who require ventilatory support.

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