Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a chronic blood-borne disease that affects > 4,000,000 individuals in the United States. The majority of individuals with HVC infection acquire a chronic hepatitis that predisposes them to the complications of cirrhosis and hepatoma. Chronic HCV infection is, however, associated with multiple extrahepatic manifestations as well, including recently recognized effects on the lung. These include primary effects on lung function, as well as secondary effects in the settings of progressive liver disease and drug treatment for HCV. In this article, we discuss the emerging clinical data that support a role for HCV infection in lung disease, describe the multiple pulmonary manifestations of this viral infection, and outline the therapies available for specific pulmonary complications of chronic HCV infection.