Laser microdissection (LMD) is an accurate and fast method to procure pure populations of cells from complex, heterogeneous tissues under direct microscopic visualization. It can be applied to a wide range of cell preparation, including paraffin-embedded material. The morphology of the captured cells is retained, and DNA, RNA, and proteins can be extracted for molecular analysis. The potential applications of LMD to human cardiovascular research are multiple, including viral/autoimmune myocarditis and arteritis, atherosclerotic lesions, and myocardial and vascular cell proliferation and death. Molecular and genetic analysis of LMD-procured cells in cardiac and vascular tissues may provide a better understanding of several cardiac diseases.