Background: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The inability or failure of many subjects to adhere to standard antibiotic regimens, which may last up to 10 days, results in suboptimal antibiotic treatment. Treatment with a single-dose antibiotic regimen may improve compliance with prescribed therapy. A novel microsphere formulation of azithromycin provides a single-dose regimen while maintaining tolerability.
Study objective: To compare the efficacy and safety of a single 2.0-g dose of azithromycin microspheres to that of an extended-release formulation of clarithromycin (1.0 g/d for 7 days) for the treatment of adults with mild-to-moderate CAP.
Design: A phase III, multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy study, comparing single-dose azithromycin microspheres to extended-release clarithromycin, both administered orally.
Methods: Subjects with mild-to-moderate CAP (Fine class I and II) were included. The primary end point was clinical response at the test-of-cure (TOC) visit (days 14 to 21) in the clinical per protocol (CPP) population. The bacteriologic response at the TOC visit was assessed in subjects with a baseline pathogen.
Results: A total of 501 subjects were randomized, and 499 were treated. Clinical cure rates at the TOC visit in the CPP population were 92.6% (187 of 202 subjects) for azithromycin microspheres and 94.7% (198 of 209 subjects) for extended-release clarithromycin. Overall pathogen eradication rates were 91.8% (123 of 134 subjects) for azithromycin microspheres and 90.5% (153 of 169 subjects) for extended-release clarithromycin. Both agents were well tolerated. The incidence of treatment-related adverse events was 26.3% with azithromycin microspheres and 24.6% with extended-release clarithromycin. Most adverse events were mild to moderate in severity.
Conclusion: A single 2.0-g dose of azithromycin microspheres was as effective and well tolerated as a 7-day course of extended-release clarithromycin in the treatment of adults with mild-to-moderate CAP.