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Clinical Investigations: LUNG CANCER |

Presurgical Staging of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer*: Positron Emission Tomography, Integrated Positron Emission Tomography/CT, and Software Image Fusion

Benjamin S. Halpern, MD; Christiaan Schiepers, MD, PhD; Wolfgang A. Weber, MD; Tyler L. Crawford, MD; Barbara J. Fueger, MD; Michael E. Phelps, PhD; Johannes Czernin, MD
Author and Funding Information

*From the Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology (Drs. Schiepers, Weber, Fueger, Phelps, and Czernin), Ahmanson Biological Imaging Center, UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA; Department of Radiological Sciences (Dr. Crawford), UCLA David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA; and Department of Radiology (Dr. Halpern), Medical Diagnostic Division, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria.

Correspondence to: Johannes Czernin, MD, UCLA School of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine, AR 128 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Ave, Los Angeles, CA 90095-6942; e-mail: jczernin@mednet.ucla.edu



Chest. 2005;128(4):2289-2297. doi:10.1378/chest.128.4.2289
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Purpose: To compare the diagnostic accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) and integrated PET/CT and to evaluate the performance of software fusion for staging of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Methods: Thirty-six patients (17 men and 19 women) with NSCLC underwent staging with integrated PET/CT followed by mediastinal lymph node dissection and tumor resection. Twenty-five of the 36 patients (69%) underwent separate CT studies for software fusion of images. Two blinded reviewers analyzed in consensus all PET images, and an experienced radiologist was added to assess integrated and software-fused PET/CT images. Histopathologic findings served as “gold standard” for determining the diagnostic accuracy of all modalities.

Results: Reviewers examining PET and integrated PET/CT classified T stage accurately in 67% (20 of 30 patients) and 97% (29 of 30 patients), respectively (p < 0.05). Overall, interpretations based on PET staged 57% (17 of 30 patients) correctly, overstaged 6 patients (20%), and understaged 7 patients (23%). Interpretations based on integrated PET/CT correctly staged 83% (25 of 30 patients), overstaged 3 patients (10%), and understaged 2 patients (7%). The overall staging accuracy of integrated PET/CT was significantly higher than that of PET (p < 0.05). Automatic software fusion of separately obtained PET and CT studies was successful in 68% of the patients but failed in 32%. In successful software fusion cases, the results of software fusion with regards to T stage and N stage were not different from integrated PET/CT.

Conclusions: Integrated PET/CT compared with PET alone was associated with 26% points-greater overall diagnostic accuracy (p = 0.01). The software fusion method failed to provide acceptable coregistration in > 30% of the patients.

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