Objective: Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a valid surrogate for hemodynamic significance in stenotic native coronary arteries, but its validity in patients with coronary stent restenosis is unknown.
Setting: University hospital.
Patients: We studied 42 patients (mean age ± 1 SD, 62 ± 10 years) with stent restenosis and 57 patients (mean age, 61 ± 12 years) with a native coronary lesion. All patients demonstrated a single coronary lesion of intermediate severity (stenosis diameter, 40 to 70%). Determination of FFR and quantitative angiography of the stenosis were performed.
Results: Stenosis diameter was comparable in both groups (native, 52 ± 11%; stent, 52 ± 9%; not significant [NS]). FFR was lower in stent restenosis (0.77 ± 0.15 vs 0.82 ± 0.12, p < 0.05) and more often pathologic with an FFR < 0.75 (48% vs 26%, p < 0.05) compared to native coronary stenosis. However, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for native stenosis was 0.82 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 0.94) and for stent restenosis was 0.84 (95% CI, 0.71 to 0.97; NS). In patients with an FFR > 0.75, there was no adverse coronary event that was related to the stented lesion in the subsequent 6 months.
Conclusions: The threshold of stenosis diameter of coronary lesions for pathologic FFR measurement (FFR < 0.75) is similar for stent restenosis and native coronary stenosis. Thus, FFR measurement seems to be applicable for decision making in patients with stent restenosis.