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Clinical Investigations: COPD |

Treatment of Cachexia With Ghrelin in Patients With COPD* FREE TO VIEW

Noritoshi Nagaya, MD; Takefumi Itoh, MD; Shinsuke Murakami, MD; Hideo Oya, MD; Masaaki Uematsu, MD; Kunio Miyatake, MD; Kenji Kangawa, PhD
Author and Funding Information

*From the Department of Internal Medicine (Drs. Nagaya, Itoh, Murakami, Oya, and Miyatake), National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan; Cardiovascular Division (Dr. Uematsu), Kansai Rosai Hospital, Hyogo, Japan; and Department of Biochemistry (Dr. Kangawa), National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute, Osaka, Japan.

Correspondence to: Noritoshi Nagaya, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, National Cardiovascular Center, 5–7-1 Fujishirodai, Suita, Osaka 565-8565, Japan; e-mail: nnagaya@ri.ncvc.go.jp



Chest. 2005;128(3):1187-1193. doi:10.1378/chest.128.3.1187
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Published online

Study objectives: Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide that also induces a positive energy balance by decreasing fat utility and stimulating feeding through GH-independent mechanisms. We investigated whether ghrelin improves cachexia and functional capacity in patients with COPD.

Methods: This is an open-label pilot study. Human ghrelin (2 μg/kg bid) was IV administered to seven cachectic patients with COPD for 3 weeks. Food intake, body composition, muscle strength, exercise capacity, pulmonary function, and sympathetic nerve activity were examined before and after ghrelin therapy.

Results: A single administration of ghrelin markedly increased serum GH (21-fold). Three-week treatment with ghrelin resulted in a significant increase in mean (± SEM) body weight (49.3 ± 3.6 to 50.3 ± 3.8 kg; p < 0.05). Food intake was significantly increased during ghrelin therapy. Ghrelin increased lean body mass and peripheral and respiratory muscle strength. Ghrelin significantly increased Karnofsky performance status score and the distance walked in 6 min (370 ± 30 to 432 ± 35 m; p < 0.05), although it did not significantly alter pulmonary function. Ghrelin attenuated the exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity, as indicated by a marked decrease in plasma norepinephrine level (889 ± 123 to 597 ± 116 pg/mL; p < 0.05).

Conclusions: These preliminary results suggest that repeated administration of ghrelin improves body composition, muscle wasting, functional capacity, and sympathetic augmentation in cachectic patients with COPD.

Figures in this Article

Cachexia, which is a catabolic state characterized by weight loss and muscle wasting, occurs frequently in patients with COPD and is a strong independent risk factor for mortality.14 Cachexia also impacts not only the respiratory musculature, but also the peripheral skeletal muscle function, which impairs the quality of life in patients with COPD. However, there have been no promising drugs to improve pulmonary cachexia.

Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide that was isolated from the stomach and has been identified as an endogenous ligand for the GH secretagogue receptor.5Therefore, ghrelin may induce beneficial effects on muscle strength and energy metabolism via a GH-dependent mechanism. On the other hand, ghrelin induces a positive energy balance and weight gain by decreasing fat utility6and stimulating food intake7through GH-independent mechanisms. Interestingly, ghrelin has been shown to act directly on the CNS to decrease sympathetic nerve activity,89 which may attenuate the exaggerated energy expenditure in patients with COPD. An experimental study has shown that repeated administration of ghrelin improves cachexia in rats with heart failure.10 These findings raise the possibility that ghrelin administration may also improve pulmonary cachexia.

Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of repeated administration of ghrelin on body composition, peripheral and respiratory muscle strength, and functional capacity in cachectic patients with COPD. This is an open-label pilot study.

Study Patients

We studied seven cachectic patients with COPD (five men and two women; mean age, 78 years; range, 76 to 80 years). COPD was diagnosed on the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease criteria. Cachexia was defined as those patients with documented nonedematous and nonintentional weight loss of > 7.5% of their previous normal weight over a period of at least 6 months.4 All of the patients were clinically stable at the time of evaluation and had no evidence of other primary cachectic states, such as cancer, thyroid disease, heart failure, or severe liver disease. The study was approved by the ethical committee of the National Cardiovascular Center, and all of the patients gave written informed consent.

Preparation of Synthetic Human Ghrelin

Synthetic human ghrelin was dissolved in distilled water with 4% D-mannitol and sterilized by passage through a 0.22-μm filter (Millex; Millipore Co., Bedford, MA). Ghrelin was stored in 2-mL volumes, each containing 200 μg ghrelin. The chemical nature and content of the human ghrelin in vials were verified by high-performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. All of the vials were stored frozen at −80°C from the time of dispensing until the time of preparation for the administration.

Study Protocol

Human ghrelin (2 μg/kg, 10 mL solution) was administered IV for > 60 min at a constant rate. The infusion was repeated bid (before breakfast and before dinner) for 3 weeks. The GH responses to ghrelin were assessed upon the initial administration. The body height, body weight, Karnofsky performance status, peripheral and respiratory muscle strength, and dietary intake of the patients were assessed at baseline and after the 3-week treatment with ghrelin. Dual radiograph absorptiometry, 6-min walk test, spirometry, and blood sampling were also performed on the patients before and after ghrelin therapy. Long-term medication, including β-agonists (n = 5), anticholinergics (n = 5), xanthines (n = 4), and inhaled steroids (n = 2) was kept constant during this study protocol.

Performance Status

Karnofsky performance status, a measure of functional ability, was assessed by the investigator based on the observation and subjective feedback from the patient, as reported previously.11

Dietary Intake

Food intake for 3 consecutive days was assessed before ghrelin administration and during the last week of ghrelin therapy. The food intake was semiquantitatively assessed by staff nurses using a calorie count, based on a 10-point scale method (0 = null intake to 10 = full intake, 1,800 kilocalories), which was averaged for 3 days.

Body Composition

Patient body height was determined to the nearest 0.5 cm, with subjects standing barefoot. Body weight was assessed with a beam scale to the nearest 0.1 kg, with subjects standing barefoot and in light clothing. Dual radiograph absorptiometry (DPX-L; Lunar Radiation; Madison, WI) was performed to assess lean body mass, fat mass, and bone mineral content of the patients.

Peripheral and Respiratory Muscle Strength

Peripheral muscle strength was measured by the maximal voluntary handgrip maneuver. The patients performed four maneuvers on each side with at least a 1-min interval between each of the maneuvers. The average of the best values on the left and right sides was reported. Respiratory muscle strength was examined during maximal voluntary efforts against occluded airways (Vitaropov KH-101; Chest Scientific Instruments Ltd; Westerham, United Kingdom), as reported previously.12 The maximal inspiratory pressure and maximal expiratory pressure were measured from functional residual capacity. The patients performed four maneuvers, and the highest value was reported.

Pulmonary Function Testing

All of the patients with COPD underwent pulmonary function testing before and after receiving ghrelin therapy. Their lung volumes were measured by the helium gas dilution method, and forced expiratory flow rates were measured by a mass flow anemometer (FUDAC 70; Fukuda Denshi; Tokyo, Japan). The carbon monoxide transfer factor was measured by the single-breath method. Pulmonary function values were expressed as the percentage of predicted values.13 Arterial blood gases were measured at rest by a blood gas analyzer (ABL 720; Radiometer; Copenhagen, Denmark).

6-Min Walk Test

The 6-min walk test was performed in all of the patients according to a standardized protocol.14 The subjects were instructed to walk at their own pace but to cover as much ground as possible in 6 min. They tolerated 6-min walk tests without any adverse effects.

Blood Sampling and Assay

Blood samples were taken from the antecubital vein after 30-min bed rest in the morning following an overnight fast. Serum GH and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 were measured by immunoradiometric assay (Ab Bead HGH Eiken; Eiken Chemical Co, Ltd; Tokyo, Japan and Somatomedin CII Bayer, Bayer Medical Ltd; Tokyo, Japan). Plasma norepinephrine was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HLC8030; Tosoh Co; Tokyo, Japan). Serum cortisol and insulin were measured by enzyme immunoassay (AIA-PACK CORT, AIA-PACK IRI; Tosoh Co). Serum tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 were measured by enzyme immunoassay (Quantikine HS, R and D Systems Inc; Minneapolis, MN and TFB kit, TFB Co, Ltd; Tokyo, Japan).

Statistical Analysis

Numerical values were expressed as mean (± SEM) unless otherwise indicated. Changes in the parameters during treatment were analyzed with paired Student t test. A p value of < 0.05 was considered significant.

The administration of ghrelin transiently caused a slight feeling of being warm and sleepy in three patients. One patient felt slightly thirsty during ghrelin infusion. Other than these minor complaints, all of the subjects tolerated the 3-week administration of ghrelin without incident.

Effects of Ghrelin on Somatotropic Function

A single administration of ghrelin markedly increased serum GH level (baseline, 2.0 ± 2.3 ng/mL; peak, 42.1 ± 23.0 ng/mL; p < 0.001) [Fig 1] . Ghrelin tended to increase the serum IGF-1 level (92 ± 13 to 103 ± 15 ng/mL; difference was not significant), although it did not reach statistical significance.

Effects of Ghrelin on Food Intake, Body Weight, and Lean Body Mass

The administration of ghrelin stimulated feeding in six of the seven patients. Semiquantitative analysis also demonstrated that treatment with ghrelin increased the food intake in patients with COPD (Fig 2 , left, A). The 3-week administration of ghrelin significantly increased the body weight (49.3 ± 3.6 to 50.3 ± 3.8 kg; p < 0.05) [Fig 2, middle, B] and body mass index (18.6 ± 0.7 to 19.1 ± 0.8 kg; p < 0.05). Ghrelin increased the lean body mass (38.2 ± 6.5 to 38.9 ± 6.4 kg; p < 0.05) [Fig 2, right, C], but not the bone mineral content or fat mass.

Effects of Ghrelin on Muscle Strength

Hand-grip strength of the patients was significantly increased by ghrelin therapy (21.5 ± 6.2 to 24.2 ± 6.8 kg; p < 0.05) [Fig 3, left, A]. Furthermore, ghrelin significantly increased respiratory muscle strength, as indicated by increases in the maximal inspiratory pressure (54 ± 18 to 64 ± 23 cm H2O; p < 0.05) [Fig 3, middle, B] and the maximal expiratory pressure (47 ± 14 to 57 ± 20 cm H2O; p = 0.05) [Fig 3, right, C].

Effects of Ghrelin on Functional Capacity

Treatment with ghrelin significantly increased the Karnofsky performance status score, a marker for functional capacity (63 ± 8 to 80 ± 12; p < 0.01) [Fig 4 , left, A]. Furthermore, ghrelin significantly increased the distance walked in 6 min (370 ± 30 to 432 ± 35 m; p < 0.05) [Fig 4, right, B].

Ghrelin therapy did not significantly alter any pulmonary function parameters on spirometry (Table 1 ). Neither Pao2 nor Paco2 changed during the treatment.

Effects of Ghrelin on Sympathetic Nerve Activity and Other Hormone Levels

The plasma norepinephrine level in patients with COPD was significantly higher than the normal value, which was determined from pooled data of 10 age-matched healthy subjects (889 ± 123 vs 193 ± 8 pg/mL; p < 0.05). The 3-week administration of ghrelin markedly decreased the plasma norepinephrine level in patients with COPD (889 ± 123 to 597 ± 116 pg/mL; p < 0.05) [Fig 5 ]. Ghrelin did not significantly alter circulating glucose, insulin, cortisol, tumor necrosis factor α, or interleukin 6 (Table 2 ).

This is the first report of the use of ghrelin in patients with COPD, although we have recently reported on the effect of ghrelin in patients with heart failure.15 In the present study, we demonstrated the following: (1) administration of ghrelin significantly increased the serum GH level in patients with COPD; (2) repeated administration of ghrelin stimulated feeding and increased body weight and lean body mass; (3) treatment with ghrelin increased peripheral and respiratory muscle strength; (4) 3-week administration of ghrelin increased the distance walked in 6 min; and (5) ghrelin therapy resulted in a marked decrease in plasma norepinephrine.

Cachexia, which is a catabolic state characterized by weight loss and muscle wasting, occurs frequently in patients with COPD and is a strong independent risk factor for mortality in such patients.14 We have shown that plasma ghrelin is elevated in cachectic patients with heart failure16and those with lung cancer17 and that the plasma ghrelin level is inversely correlated with the body mass index. Considering the ghrelin-induced positive energy effects,57 the increased ghrelin may represent a compensatory mechanism under catabolic-anabolic imbalance in cachectic patients. These findings raise the possibility that supplementation of ghrelin may improve pulmonary cachexia.

Ghrelin strongly stimulates GH release through a mechanism independent from that of hypothalamic GH-releasing hormone.5 The GH-releasing effect of ghrelin has been shown to be more potent than that of the GH-releasing hormone.18The present study also demonstrated that exogenously administered ghrelin elicits a potent GH release in patients with COPD. Body weight loss and muscle wasting were observed in study patients. However, 3-week administration of ghrelin increased body weight and lean body mass of the patients. Furthermore, ghrelin therapy increased peripheral and respiratory muscle strength. These results suggest that treatment with ghrelin improves body composition and muscle wasting in cachectic patients with COPD. GH and its mediator, IGF-1, both of which are anabolic hormones, are essential for skeletal muscle.1920 Thus, ghrelin may improve muscle wasting partly through GH-dependent mechanisms. A previous study has shown that administration of ghrelin induces a positive energy balance and weight gain by decreasing fat utilization and increasing carbohydrate utilization through a GH-independent mechanism.6 In the present study, however, ghrelin did not significantly increase fat mass. The difference may be explained by the difference in the dosage of ghrelin between the two studies.

The present study demonstrated that infusion of ghrelin increased food intake in patients with COPD. Earlier animal studies7,2122 have shown that ghrelin elicits oregigenic effects via the activation of neuropeptide Y neurones in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. In addition, ghrelin is known to antagonize the action of leptin, an antiorexigenic peptide, through the activation of the hypothalamic NPY/Y1 receptor pathway.21 Thus, the administered ghrelin may attenuate malnutrition in pulmonary cachexia via its orexigenic property (GH-independent effect).

Increased sympathetic nerve activity leads to excess energy expenditure and impaired energy balance. Thus, norepinephrine is considered to be a catabolic hormone.23 In the present study, the plasma norepinephrine level was elevated in cachectic patients with COPD, suggesting the exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity in such patients. Interestingly, 3-week administration of ghrelin resulted in a marked decrease in plasma norepinephrine in patients with COPD. Another study9 has demonstrated that ghrelin acts directly on the CNS to decrease the sympathetic nerve activity. Thus, ghrelin may attenuate the exaggerated energy expenditure in patients with COPD, possibly through the direct inhibitory effect of ghrelin on sympathetic nerve activity (GH-independent effect).

Three-week administration of ghrelin improved the functional capacity in patients with COPD, as indicated by the marked increases in Karnofsky performance status score and the distance walked in 6 min. A decrease in exercise capacity is attributable not only to an inadequate increase in cardiac output during exercise, which is a central effect, but also to muscle wasting, a peripheral effect.24We have shown that infusion of ghrelin increases cardiac output in heart failure.25 In the present study, ghrelin therapy increased lean body mass and skeletal muscle strength. These results suggest that ghrelin may improve exercise capacity through both the central and peripheral effects.

In the present study, 3-week administration of ghrelin did not significantly influence any pulmonary function parameters in patients with COPD. Nevertheless, the results from this study suggest that ghrelin has anticachectic effects through GH-dependent and independent mechanisms. Although preliminary studies2627 documented beneficial effects of GH on cachexia, the results of controlled studies2829 have been predominantly negative. However, the present study demonstrated that ghrelin induces GH-independent effects: stimulating feeding and inhibiting sympathetic nerve activity. Thus, ghrelin may have additional therapeutic potential compared with GH supplementation. The major limitation of this pilot trial relates to the small sample size and the lack of a randomized, placebo-controlled group. Nonetheless, all of the changes by ghrelin were consistently in a beneficial direction, suggesting that ghrelin is effective for the treatment of pulmonary cachexia. Based on the results of this study, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study should be conducted.

In conclusion, our preliminary results suggest that repeated administration of ghrelin improves body composition, peripheral and respiratory muscle wasting, functional capacity, and sympathetic augmentation in patients with COPD. Thus, administration of ghrelin may be a new therapeutic approach for the treatment of pulmonary cachexia.

Abbreviations: GH = growth hormone; IGF = insulin-like growth factor

This study was supported by the Research Grant for Cardiovascular Disease (16C-6) from the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare; the Mochida Memorial Foundation for Medical and Pharmaceutical Research; and the Promotion of Fundamental Studies in Health Science of the Organization for Pharmaceutical Safety and Research of Japan.

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1. Changes in serum GH level after a single administration of ghrelin in patients with COPD.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 2. Effects of a 3-week administration of ghrelin on food intake (left, A), body weight (middle, B), and lean body mass (right, C).Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 3. Changes in hand-grip strength (left, A), maximal inspiratory pressure (middle, B), and maximal expiratory pressure (right, C) before and after ghrelin therapy.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 4. Changes in Karnofsky performance status score (left, A) and the distance walked in 6 min (right, B) before and after ghrelin therapy.Grahic Jump Location
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Effects of Ghrelin on Pulmonary Function*
* 

Values given as mean ± SEM. VC = vital capacity; RV = residual volume; TLC = total lung capacity; Dlco = diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide.

Figure Jump LinkFigure 5. Plasma norepinephrine level before and after ghrelin therapy.Grahic Jump Location
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. Effects of Ghrelin on Circulating Hormone Levels*
* 

Values given as mean ± SEM. TNF = tumor necrosis factor; IL = interleukin.

Schols, AM (2002) Pulmonary cachexia.Int J Cardiol85,101-110. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wilson, DO, Rogers, RM, Wright, EC, et al Body weight in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the National Institutes of Health Intermittent Positive Breathing Trial.Am Rev Respir Dis1989;139,1435-1438. [PubMed]
 
Landbo, C, Prescott, E, Lange, P, et al Prognostic value of nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1999;160,1856-1861. [PubMed]
 
Anker, SD, Ponikowski, P, Varney, S, et al Wasting as independent risk factor for mortality in chronic heart failure.Lancet1997;349,1050-1053. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kojima, M, Hosoda, H, Date, Y, et al Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach.Nature1999;402,656-660. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Tschop, M, Smiley, DL, Heiman, ML Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents.Nature2000;407,908-913. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nakazato, M, Murakami, N, Date, Y, et al A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding.Nature2001;409,194-198. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nagaya, N, Kojima, M, Uematsu, M, et al Hemodynamic and hormonal effects of human ghrelin in healthy volunteers.Am J Physiol2001;280,R1483-R1487
 
Matsumura, K, Tsuchihashi, T, Fujii, K, et al Central ghrelin modulates sympathetic activity in conscious rabbits.Hypertension2002;40,694-699. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nagaya, N, Uematsu, M, Kojima, M, et al Chronic administration of ghrelin improves left ventricular dysfunction and attenuates development of cardiac cachexia in rats with heart failure.Circulation2001;104,1430-1435. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Yeh, SS, DeGuzman, B, Kramer, T, et al Reversal of COPD-associated weight loss using the anabolic agent oxandrolone.Chest2002;122,421-428. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Burdet, L, de Muralt, B, Schutz, Y, et al Administration of growth hormone to underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;156,1800-1806. [PubMed]
 
Berglund, E, Birath, G, Bjure, J, et al Spirometric studies in normal subjects.Acta Med Scand1963;173,185-191. [PubMed]
 
Woo, MA, Moser, DK, Stevenson, LW, et al Six-minute walk test and heart rate variability: lack of association in advanced stages of heart failure.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;6,348-354
 
Nagaya, N, Moriya, J, Yasumura, Y, et al Effects of ghrelin administration on left ventricular function, exercise capacity, and muscle wasting in patients with chronic heart failure.Circulation2004;110,3674-3679. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nagaya, N, Uematsu, M, Kojima, M, et al Elevated circulating levels of ghrelin in the cachexia associated with chronic heart failure.Circulation2001;104,2034-2038. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shimizu, Y, Nagaya, N, Isobe, T, et al Increased plasma ghrelin level in lung cancer cachexia.Clin Cancer Res2003;9,774-778. [PubMed]
 
Takaya, K, Ariyasu, H, Kanamoto, N, et al Ghrelin strongly stimulates growth hormone (GH) release in humans.J Clin Endocrinol Metab2000;85,4908-4911. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Amato, G, Carella, C, Fazio, S, et al Body composition, bone metabolism, heart structure and function in growth hormone deficient adults before and after growth hormone replacement therapy at low doses.J Clin Endocrinol Metab1993;77,1671-1676. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bark, TH, McNurlan, MA, Lang, CH, et al Increased protein synthesis after acute IGF-I or insulin infusion is localized to muscle in mice.Am J Physiol1998;275,E118-E123. [PubMed]
 
Shintani, M, Ogawa, Y, Ebihara, K, et al Ghrelin, an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue, is a novel orexigenic peptide that antagonizes leptin action through the activation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/Y1 receptor pathway.Diabetes2001;50,227-232. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wren, AM, Small, CJ, Ward, HL, et al The novel hypothalamic peptide ghrelin stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion.Endocrinology2000;141,4325-4328. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Anker, SD, Chua, TP, Ponikowski, P, et al Hormonal changes and catabolic/anabolic imbalance in chronic heart failure and their importance for cardiac cachexia.Circulation1997;96,526-534. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Anderson, P, Saltin, B Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man.J Appl Physiol1985;366,233-249
 
Nagaya, N, Miyatake, K, Uematsu, M, et al Hemodynamic, renal and hormonal effects of ghrelin infusion in patients with chronic heart failure.J Clin Endocrinol Metab2001;86,5854-5859. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Pape, GS, Friedman, M, Underwood, LE, et al The effect of growth hormone on weight gain and pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.Chest1991;99,1495-1500. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Papadakis, MA, Grady, DG, Black, D, et al Growth hormone replacement in healthy older men improves body composition but not functional ability.Ann Intern Med1996;124,708-716. [PubMed]
 
Pichard, C, Kyle, U, Chevrolet, JC, et al Lack of effects of recombinant growth hormone on muscle function in patients requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation: a prospective.Crit Care Med1996;24,403-413. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Burdet, L, de Muralt, B, Schutz, Y, et al Administration of growth hormone to underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;156,1800-1806. [PubMed]
 

Figures

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1. Changes in serum GH level after a single administration of ghrelin in patients with COPD.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 2. Effects of a 3-week administration of ghrelin on food intake (left, A), body weight (middle, B), and lean body mass (right, C).Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 3. Changes in hand-grip strength (left, A), maximal inspiratory pressure (middle, B), and maximal expiratory pressure (right, C) before and after ghrelin therapy.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 4. Changes in Karnofsky performance status score (left, A) and the distance walked in 6 min (right, B) before and after ghrelin therapy.Grahic Jump Location
Figure Jump LinkFigure 5. Plasma norepinephrine level before and after ghrelin therapy.Grahic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Effects of Ghrelin on Pulmonary Function*
* 

Values given as mean ± SEM. VC = vital capacity; RV = residual volume; TLC = total lung capacity; Dlco = diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. Effects of Ghrelin on Circulating Hormone Levels*
* 

Values given as mean ± SEM. TNF = tumor necrosis factor; IL = interleukin.

References

Schols, AM (2002) Pulmonary cachexia.Int J Cardiol85,101-110. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wilson, DO, Rogers, RM, Wright, EC, et al Body weight in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: the National Institutes of Health Intermittent Positive Breathing Trial.Am Rev Respir Dis1989;139,1435-1438. [PubMed]
 
Landbo, C, Prescott, E, Lange, P, et al Prognostic value of nutritional status in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1999;160,1856-1861. [PubMed]
 
Anker, SD, Ponikowski, P, Varney, S, et al Wasting as independent risk factor for mortality in chronic heart failure.Lancet1997;349,1050-1053. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kojima, M, Hosoda, H, Date, Y, et al Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach.Nature1999;402,656-660. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Tschop, M, Smiley, DL, Heiman, ML Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents.Nature2000;407,908-913. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nakazato, M, Murakami, N, Date, Y, et al A role for ghrelin in the central regulation of feeding.Nature2001;409,194-198. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nagaya, N, Kojima, M, Uematsu, M, et al Hemodynamic and hormonal effects of human ghrelin in healthy volunteers.Am J Physiol2001;280,R1483-R1487
 
Matsumura, K, Tsuchihashi, T, Fujii, K, et al Central ghrelin modulates sympathetic activity in conscious rabbits.Hypertension2002;40,694-699. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nagaya, N, Uematsu, M, Kojima, M, et al Chronic administration of ghrelin improves left ventricular dysfunction and attenuates development of cardiac cachexia in rats with heart failure.Circulation2001;104,1430-1435. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Yeh, SS, DeGuzman, B, Kramer, T, et al Reversal of COPD-associated weight loss using the anabolic agent oxandrolone.Chest2002;122,421-428. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Burdet, L, de Muralt, B, Schutz, Y, et al Administration of growth hormone to underweight patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective, randomized, controlled study.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;156,1800-1806. [PubMed]
 
Berglund, E, Birath, G, Bjure, J, et al Spirometric studies in normal subjects.Acta Med Scand1963;173,185-191. [PubMed]
 
Woo, MA, Moser, DK, Stevenson, LW, et al Six-minute walk test and heart rate variability: lack of association in advanced stages of heart failure.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;6,348-354
 
Nagaya, N, Moriya, J, Yasumura, Y, et al Effects of ghrelin administration on left ventricular function, exercise capacity, and muscle wasting in patients with chronic heart failure.Circulation2004;110,3674-3679. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nagaya, N, Uematsu, M, Kojima, M, et al Elevated circulating levels of ghrelin in the cachexia associated with chronic heart failure.Circulation2001;104,2034-2038. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shimizu, Y, Nagaya, N, Isobe, T, et al Increased plasma ghrelin level in lung cancer cachexia.Clin Cancer Res2003;9,774-778. [PubMed]
 
Takaya, K, Ariyasu, H, Kanamoto, N, et al Ghrelin strongly stimulates growth hormone (GH) release in humans.J Clin Endocrinol Metab2000;85,4908-4911. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Amato, G, Carella, C, Fazio, S, et al Body composition, bone metabolism, heart structure and function in growth hormone deficient adults before and after growth hormone replacement therapy at low doses.J Clin Endocrinol Metab1993;77,1671-1676. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bark, TH, McNurlan, MA, Lang, CH, et al Increased protein synthesis after acute IGF-I or insulin infusion is localized to muscle in mice.Am J Physiol1998;275,E118-E123. [PubMed]
 
Shintani, M, Ogawa, Y, Ebihara, K, et al Ghrelin, an endogenous growth hormone secretagogue, is a novel orexigenic peptide that antagonizes leptin action through the activation of hypothalamic neuropeptide Y/Y1 receptor pathway.Diabetes2001;50,227-232. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wren, AM, Small, CJ, Ward, HL, et al The novel hypothalamic peptide ghrelin stimulates food intake and growth hormone secretion.Endocrinology2000;141,4325-4328. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Anker, SD, Chua, TP, Ponikowski, P, et al Hormonal changes and catabolic/anabolic imbalance in chronic heart failure and their importance for cardiac cachexia.Circulation1997;96,526-534. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Anderson, P, Saltin, B Maximal perfusion of skeletal muscle in man.J Appl Physiol1985;366,233-249
 
Nagaya, N, Miyatake, K, Uematsu, M, et al Hemodynamic, renal and hormonal effects of ghrelin infusion in patients with chronic heart failure.J Clin Endocrinol Metab2001;86,5854-5859. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Pape, GS, Friedman, M, Underwood, LE, et al The effect of growth hormone on weight gain and pulmonary function in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease.Chest1991;99,1495-1500. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Papadakis, MA, Grady, DG, Black, D, et al Growth hormone replacement in healthy older men improves body composition but not functional ability.Ann Intern Med1996;124,708-716. [PubMed]
 
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