0
Clinical Investigations: COPD |

Self-Reported Smoking Status and Exhaled Carbon Monoxide*: Results From Two Population-Based Epidemiologic Studies in the North of England

Mark S. Pearce, PhD; Louise Hayes, MSc; on behalf of the Newcastle Heart Project and the Newcastle Thousand Families Study
Author and Funding Information

*From the School of Clinical Medical Sciences (Dr. Pearce), and the School of Population and Health Sciences (Ms. Hayes), University of Newcastle, Newcastle Upon Tyne, UK.

Correspondence to: Mark S. Pearce, PhD, Sir James Spence Institute, University of Newcastle Upon Tyne, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 4LP, United Kingdom; e-mail: m.s.pearce@ncl.ac.uk



Chest. 2005;128(3):1233-1238. doi:10.1378/chest.128.3.1233
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Study objectives: To investigate the validity of self-reported responses to questions on current smoking in two cohorts based in Northern England.

Design: A cross-sectional population-based study (the Newcastle Heart Project [NHP]) and a follow-up of the Newcastle Thousand Families birth cohort established in 1947.

Patients or participants: Participants included 1,189 members of the NHP and 410 members of the Newcastle Thousand Families cohort who completed a health and lifestyle questionnaire, including questions on current smoking, and attended a clinical examination, including testing for exhaled carbon monoxide between April 1993 and December 1998.

Results: The number of self-reporting smokers for whom very low (ie, < 6 ppm) exhaled carbon monoxide levels were recorded varied between 9% in the Newcastle Thousand Families Study and 26% among the members of the NHP who were of South Asian origin. Using a cutoff of 8 ppm, 80% of self-reported smokers were identified in both the Newcastle Thousand Families study and in the NHP European population, but only 60% were identified in the NHP South Asian population. In each population, < 7% of nonsmokers had exhaled carbon monoxide measurements of > 6 ppm, with nonsmoking men more likely to have higher levels than nonsmoking women. Among the nonsmokers, the levels of exhaled carbon monoxide did not vary with respect to the smoking status of a partner or socioeconomic status.

Conclusions: Using a cutoff value of 6 ppm would potentially miss a large number of smokers, although this may vary with ethnicity. Epidemiologic studies should continue to use biochemical markers to validate responses to smoking surveys. However, the use of exhaled carbon monoxide measurements as a method of assessing the validity of self-reported smoking status may require additional analyses of whether the cutoff level should vary for different populations.


Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Figures

Tables

References

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

CHEST Journal Articles
PubMed Articles
  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543