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Editorials |

Cause and Effect in Lung Cancer: Fueling the Fire

Peter J. Mazzone, MD, FCCP; Juan Carlos Chagoya, MD; Alejandro C. Arroliga, MD, FCCP
Author and Funding Information

Affiliations: Cleveland, OH
 ,  Dr. Mazzone is Director of the Lung Cancer Program, Dr. Chagoya is a Fellow in the Department of Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care Medicine, and Dr. Arroliga is Professor of Medicine, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation, and Head, Section of Critical Care Medicine, Lerner College of Medicine.

Correspondence to: Alejandro C. Arroliga, MD, FCCP, Professor of Medicine, The Cleveland Clinic Foundation. 9500 Euclid Ave, G6-156, Cleveland, OH 44195; e-mail: arrolia@ccf.org



Chest. 2005;128(1):6-8. doi:10.1378/chest.128.1.6
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1Practical applications of epidemiology. Friis, RH Sellers, TA eds.Epidemiology for public health practice 2nd ed.1999,33-67 Aspen. Gaithersburg, MD: 2Data interpretation issues. Friis, RH Sellers, TA eds.Epidemiology for public health practice 2nd ed.1999,281-304 Aspen. Gaithersburg, MD: 3Newman, TB, Browner, WS, Hulley, SB Enhancing causal inference in observational studies. Hulley, SB Cummings, SR Browner, WSet al eds.Designing clinical research 2nd ed.2001,125-141 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Philadelphia, PA: 4Hernandez-Garduno, E, Brauer, M, Perez-Neria, J, et al Wood smoke exposure and lung adenocarcinoma in non-smoking Mexican women.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis2004;8,377-3835Gupta, D, Boffetta, P, Gaborieau, V, et al Risk factors of lung cancer in Chandigarh, India.Indian J Med Res2001;113,142-1506Malats, N, Camus-Radon, AM, Nyberg, F, et al Lung cancer risk in nonsmokers and GSTM1 and GSTT1 genetic polymorphism.Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev2000;9,827-8337Gao, YT Risk factors for lung cancer among nonsmokers with emphasis on life style factors.Lung Cancer1996;14(Suppl),S39-S458Gupta, RC, Purohit, SD, Sharma, MP, et al Primary bronchogenic carcinoma: clinical profile of 279 cases from mid-west Rajasthan.Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci1998;40,109-1169Medina, FM, Barrera, RR, Morales, JF, et al Primary lung cancer in Mexico City: a report of 1019 cases.Lung Cancer1996;14,185-19310Kleinerman, R, Wang, Z, Lubin, J, et al Lung cancer and indoor air pollution in rural China.Ann Epidemiol2000;10,46911Bruce, N, Perez-Padilla, R, Albalak, R Indoor air pollution in developing countries: a major environmental and public health challenge.Bull World Health Organ2000;78,1078-109212Mumford, JL, Li, X, Hu, F, et al Human exposure and dosimetry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine from Xuan Wei, China with high lung cancer mortality associated with exposure to unvented coal smoke.Carcinogenesis1995;16,3031-303613Mumford, JL, Helmes, CT, Lee, XM, et al Mouse skin tumorigenicity studies of indoor coal and wood combustion emissions from homes of residents in Xuan Wei, China with high lung cancer mortality.Carcinogenesis1990;11,397-40314Liang, CK, Quan, NY, Cao, SR, et al Natural inhalation exposure to coal smoke and wood smoke induces lung cancer in mice and rats.Biomed Environ Sci1988;1,42-5015Lubin, JH, Wang, ZY, Boice, JD, et al Risk of lung cancer and residential radon in China: pooled results of two studies.Int J Cancer2004;109,132-13716Desai, MA, Mehta, S, Smith, KR Indoor smoke from solid fuels: assessing the environmental burden of the disease at national and local levels. WHO Environmental Burden of Disease Series, No. 42004 World Health Organization. Geneva, Switzerland:

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