0
Clinical Investigations: ASTHMA |

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Asthma*: A Longitudinal Study in UK General Practice FREE TO VIEW

Ana Ruigómez, MD, PhD; Luis Alberto García Rodríguez, MD, MSc; Mari-Ann Wallander, PhD; Saga Johansson, MD, PhD; Mike Thomas, MB, BS; David Price, MB, BChir
Author and Funding Information

*From the Centro Español de Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica (Drs. Ruigómez and García Rodriguez), Madrid, Spain; AstraZeneca R&D (Drs. Wallander and Johansson), Mölndal, Sweden; the Department of General Practice and Primary Care (Mr. Thomas and Mr.Price), University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, UK.

Correspondence to: Ana Ruigómez, MD, PhD, Centro Español de Investigación Farmacoepidemiológica (CEIFE), C/ Almirante 28, 2°, 28004 Madrid, Spain; e-mail: aruigomez@ceife.es



Chest. 2005;128(1):85-93. doi:10.1378/chest.128.1.85
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Study objectives: Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and asthma are common causes for consultation in primary care, but the relationship between the two remains unclear. The aim of our study was to investigate the temporal relationship between first diagnoses of GERD and asthma in general practice.

Methods: We used the UK General Practice Research Database to identify a cohort of patients with a first diagnosis of GERD (n = 5,653) and another cohort of patients with a first diagnosis of asthma (n = 9,712) during 1996, which we compared with age-matched and sex-matched control cohorts drawn from the general population without either diagnosis. We investigated the incidence of a GERD diagnosis among the asthma patients and control subjects, and the incidence of an asthma diagnosis among the GERD patients and control subjects during a mean follow-up period of 3 years. We calculated the relative risk (RR) of these diagnoses using Cox regression analysis and examined the risk associated with medication use using nested case-control analysis.

Results: The incidence rates of GERD and asthma among the control cohorts were 4.4 and 3.8 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. During the follow-up period, the RR of an incident asthma diagnosis in patients with a new diagnosis of GERD was 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.9 to 1.6), while the RR of an incident GERD diagnosis among patients with a new diagnosis of asthma was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8) after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, prior comorbidity, and number of health-care contacts. This increased risk was mainly seen during the first year of follow-up. The prior use of prescription medications for asthma and GERD had no significant effects on the risk of GERD and asthma diagnosis, respectively.

Conclusions: Patients with asthma are at a significantly increased risk of developing GERD, mainly during the first year following diagnosis. A nonsignificant increase in the risk of developing asthma was evident among GERD patients. The relationship between GERD and asthma warrants further investigation.

Figures in this Article

Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is usually diagnosed by the presence of esophageal symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation, but many individuals with GERD also experience a range of extraesophageal symptoms, such as chronic cough, hoarseness, and chest pain.1Among these, asthma has been the subject of particular investigation. A number of small studies214 have reported an increased prevalence of reflux symptoms, esophagitis, and abnormal esophageal acid exposure in highly selected populations of asthma patients who have been referred to the gastroenterologist for investigation, although the absence of control groups in many of these studies makes their findings difficult to interpret.

Several epidemiologic studies have been published presenting the prevalence of asthma in individuals with GERD compared to control subjects. A hospital study15found that a diagnosis of erosive esophagitis and esophageal strictures was associated with asthma. A similar hospital study16in children showed a significantly increased risk of asthma in patients with GERD compared to control subjects. A population-based study17found a significant association between weekly heartburn or belching after bedtime and physician-diagnosed asthma. In a survey from the general population of Olmsted County, MN,18asthma was more common among individuals reporting weekly heartburn and/or acid regurgitation (11.6%) than among those without reflux symptoms (7.9%), although this did not represent a significant association. In contrast, a population survey19 conducted in Hong Kong showed that individuals with any heartburn and/or acid regurgitation over the last year (only a subset of whom may have had GERD) were no more likely to have asthma than those without reflux symptoms.

The association between GERD and asthma has also been investigated temporally. Longitudinal epidemiologic studies2022 have shown that GERD and reflux esophagitis are risk factors for asthma and cough. Ruhl and colleagues20found that patients hospitalized with hiatus hernia or reflux esophagitis had an increased risk of subsequent respiratory hospitalization. However, the converse relationship was observed by Kotzan and colleagues,21 who found a significantly increased risk of GERD diagnosis in patients with preexisting asthma.

Longitudinal studies, therefore, support the case for GERD predisposing toward new cases of asthma, and asthma predisposing toward new cases of GERD. However, no studies have looked at these relationships in the same source population over the same time period. Therefore, we conducted two longitudinal cohort studies to investigate the relationship between the first diagnoses of GERD and asthma in patients consulting a UK general practice. In the first study performed, patients with newly diagnosed GERD were identified and followed up to assess their risk of a first asthma diagnosis compared to a control cohort without a diagnosis of GERD or asthma at baseline. In the second study, we identified and followed up patients with newly diagnosed asthma to assess their risk of a first diagnosis of GERD compared to a control cohort without a diagnosis of GERD or asthma at baseline. In addition, we assessed the potential risk associated with the use of prescription drugs for GERD and asthma using a nested case-control analysis.

Source Population and Study Design

The source population for our studies was drawn from approximately 3 million UK residents who were registered with general practitioners (GPs) participating in the General Practice Research Database (GPRD). Participating GPs record medical information, including patient demographics, medical diagnoses, consultant referral, hospitalization, and a register of written prescriptions. These data are sent anonymously to the Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, which makes them available for use in research projects. The accuracy and completeness of the GPRD has been documented in previous validation studies,2326 and in previous studies of patients with GERD22,27and asthma.2829

Two cohort studies with nested case-control analyses were performed. The source population for both studies fulfilled the following criteria: age 2 to 79 years during 1996; registered with a GP participating in the GPRD for at least 2 years, with a computerized prescription history for at least the previous year; no previous diagnosis of cancer; and not pregnant in 1996. The selection of the source population and participants in both studies is shown in Figure 1 .

Study Cohorts and Case Ascertainment
Study 1:

In study 1, which evaluated the risk of asthma following a GERD diagnosis in the source population, we used a previously identified cohort of patients with a first recorded diagnosis of GERD during the year 1996 (n = 7,159).22 We removed from the cohort patients with a recorded diagnosis of asthma prior to 1996. We also removed long-term users of acid-suppressing drugs without a clear indication for this use to exclude potential prevalent cases of GERD. We manually reviewed the computerized patient profile of all GERD patients to verify the recorded diagnosis and excluded prevalent cases of GERD, as has been described in detail previously.22 Finally, 5,653 patients constituted the GERD cohort (Fig 1).

A comparison cohort (n = 10,000), frequency-matched by age and sex to the GERD cohort, was randomly sampled from the source population. After applying the same exclusion criteria as were applied to the GERD cohort, 8,105 individuals without a GERD diagnosis at the study start date constituted the comparison cohort for study 1 (Fig 1).

Individuals in both the GERD and comparison cohorts were followed up from the start date (ie, the date of GERD diagnosis for patients in the GERD cohort and a random date in 1996 for individuals in the control cohort) until the earliest occurrence of one of the following end points: asthma diagnosis; death; or the end of the study period (December 31, 2001). To ensure that the study population continued to reflect the inclusion criteria, data collection ceased once subjects reached the age of 80 or received diagnoses of any type of cancer. The computerized patient profiles of all patients identified with a code of asthma during the follow-up period were manually reviewed to exclude prevalent cases and to confirm the diagnosis of asthma recorded in the database. For this purpose, an incident case of asthma was defined as a computer-recorded diagnosis of asthma (International Classification of Diseases [ICD] codes 4930, 4931, and 4939) together with a specific recorded symptom of asthma (ie, nocturnal cough, wheeze, or shortness of breath) and/or a prescription for oral steroids, inhaled steroids, or bronchodilators.

The incidence rates of asthma were computed according to age and sex among both the GERD cohort and the comparison cohort drawn from the general population without a GERD diagnosis. We estimated the relative risk (RR) of asthma associated with GERD using Cox proportional hazard regression and adjusting for potential risk factors. We also performed a nested case-control analysis within the GERD cohort to evaluate the association between the use of acid-suppressing drugs and the risk of asthma by comparing all asthma cases (n = 103) within the GERD cohort with a random sample of GERD patients without an asthma diagnosis (n = 1,000) as control subjects.

Study 2:

In study 2, which evaluated the risk of GERD following asthma diagnosis, we identified patients from the source population who had received a first diagnosis of asthma during 1996 (n = 11,265). We removed patients with a diagnosis of GERD, as well as those who had received > 6 months of treatment with β2-agonists during the previous 2 years to exclude potential cases of asthma. The computerized patient profiles of all asthma patients were manually reviewed to verify their diagnosis and to exclude prevalent cases. Finally, 9,712 patients constituted the asthma cohort (Fig 1).

A comparison cohort that was frequency-matched by age and sex (n = 20,000) was randomly sampled from the source population. We applied the same exclusion criteria as the those applied to the asthma cohort. Finally, the comparison cohort for study 2 constituted 19,334 individuals without an asthma diagnosis at the start date (Fig 1).

Persons in both the asthma and the comparison cohort were followed up from the start date (ie, the date of asthma diagnosis for patients in the asthma cohort and a random date in 1996 for individuals in the control cohort) until the occurrence of GERD diagnosis, death, or the end of the study period (December 31, 2001). Other reasons to stop data collection were a diagnosis of any type of cancer or reaching the age of 80 years. The computerized profiles of all patients who had been identified with a code of GERD during the follow-up period were manually reviewed to exclude prevalent cases. An incident case of GERD was defined as the presence for the first time of a computer-recorded code for GERD (ICD codes 5300, 5301, 5305, 5309, 5369, and 7817).

The incidence rates of GERD were computed according to age and sex in both the asthma cohort and the comparison cohort without an asthma diagnosis drawn from the general population. We also estimated the RR of GERD associated with asthma using Cox proportional hazard regression and adjusting for potential risk factors. A nested case-control analysis was performed within the asthma cohort to evaluate the association between the use of β2-agonists, or inhaled or oral steroids, and the risk of GERD, using all GERD cases (n = 219) within the asthma cohort and a random sample of asthma patients without a GERD diagnosis (n = 1,000) as control subjects.

For both studies, we collected information on the following potential risk factors prior to start date: smoking; body mass index (BMI); alcohol consumption; and a medical history of COPD, allergic rhinitis, peptic ulcer disease, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We also collected information on prescriptions issued for H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors, prokinetic drugs (ie, domperidone, metoclopramide, and cisapride), antacids, inhaled or oral steroids, and β2-agonists. All of the above information was extracted from patients’ computerized records. For prescription medication use, current use was defined as a supply of medication lasting until the date of asthma diagnosis (study 1) or GERD diagnosis (study 2), or ending in the month prior to this date. Health-care utilization was assessed using the recorded number of visits to the GP, referrals to a consultant, and hospitalizations in the year prior to the study start date.

Study 1: Risk of Asthma Following GERD Diagnosis

During a mean follow-up period of 3.0 years (SD, 1.7 years), we identified 103 cases of asthma in the GERD cohort (n = 5,653), corresponding to an incidence rate of 6.0 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.9 to 7.3). During the same period, there were 99 cases in the control cohort (n = 8,105), corresponding to an incidence rate of 3.8 cases per 1,000 person-years (95% CI, 3.1 to 4.6). The age and sex-adjusted RR of asthma in the GERD cohort was 1.5 (95% CI, 1.1 to 2.0). When adjusting for age, sex, smoking, prior morbidity, and health-care utilization (ie, visits to the GP and hospitalization) in the multivariate analysis, there was a nonsignificant increase in the risk of asthma (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.6) among patients with GERD in comparison with those without GERD (Table 2 ). This risk was the same during the first year after diagnosis of GERD (RR, 1.1; 95% CI, 0.7 to 1.8) as during the remaining follow-up period (RR, 1.2; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.8). Patients who were ≥ 20 years of age were less likely to develop asthma than children and younger adult patients (Table 2). No significant difference in risk was found between men and women (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.9 to 1.7). No clear association was observed with smoking status, BMI, or alcohol consumption (Table 2). Patients with a history of allergic rhinitis were at an almost twofold increased risk of asthma (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.9). Those persons who made frequent visits (eg, 3 to 10 visits) to their GP in the year prior to the study were at greater risk of a first diagnosis of asthma (RR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3 to 2.6). In the case-control analysis conducted in the GERD cohort, we observed no significant association between the current use of GI drugs and the occurrence of asthma (Table 3 ).

Study 2: Risk of GERD Following Asthma Diagnosis

During a mean follow-up period of 2.8 years (SD, 1.6 years), 219 cases of GERD were identified in the asthma cohort (n = 9,712), corresponding to an incidence rate of 8 per 1,000 person-years (95% CI, 7.0 to 9.1). During the same period, 241 cases were identified in the control cohort (n = 19,334), corresponding to an incidence rate of 4.4 (95% CI, 3.9 to 5.0) [Table 4] . The age and sex-adjusted RR of GERD in the asthma cohort was 1.9 (95% CI, 1.6 to 2.2). When adjusting for age, sex, smoking, prior morbidity, and health-care utilization (ie, visits to the GP and hospitalization), there was a small but significant increase in the RR of an incident GERD diagnosis among patients with new diagnoses of asthma (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2 to 1.8) [Table 5] . The greater increased hazard for GERD among asthma patients was seen during the first year after asthma diagnosis, with a RR of 2.1 (95% CI, 1.5 to 2.9), while the RR in the remainder of the follow-up period declined to 1.2 (95% CI, 1.0 to 1.6). The risk of developing GERD increased with increasing age, such that patients aged > 60 years were 13 times more likely than those < 20 years of age to receive a diagnosis of GERD (RR, 13.6; 95% CI, 8.7 to 21.4). The risk of a new diagnosis of GERD was increased among patients who visited their GP the most frequently (for > 10 visits per year compared with 0 to 2 visits per year: RR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.8 to 3.4) and among those referred for specialist care or hospitalized (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1 to 1.6) in the year prior to the study start date. A prior diagnosis of IBS was also a risk factor for having a diagnosis of GERD (RR, 1.5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 2.1) [Table 5].

When adjusting for other potential risk factors, we did not find that the current use of oral or inhaled steroids or β2-agonists was associated with a significantly increased risk of GERD among patients with a first diagnosis of asthma, although the current use of oral steroids (odds ratio [OR], 1.6; 95% CI, 0.7 to 3.4) and inhaled steroids (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 0.9 to 2.3) was associated with a nonsignificant increase in the risk of GERD (Table 6 ). This increased risk of GERD was particularly marked in asthma patients who had been treated with oral steroids for > 3 months (n = 11) (OR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.0 to 19.5).

The studies presented here reported that in the general population in the United Kingdom diagnoses of asthma and GERD had similar incidence rates (3.8 and 4.4 cases per 1,000 person-years, respectively), which were in the range that has been reported by most studies over the past few years,2122,3037 although they were somewhat lower than those reported by some other studies.28,3842 The data presented in our observational studies related to diagnoses made by GPs in routine primary care, making our findings directly applicable to UK general practices. GPs have the advantage of observing large numbers of patients over considerable time periods, factors that are helpful in determining whether there is any relation between GERD and asthma. The estimated incidence rates of GERD and asthma were calculated from GP consultations, possibly leading to many cases going unrecorded, as only a quarter of patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux43consult their GP about their symptoms in a given year, and more than one in five schoolchildren reporting moderate-to-severe asthma symptoms remain without diagnoses.44Furthermore, the diagnosis of GERD or asthma was reliant on the clinical judgment of GPs rather than on uniform criteria laid down in a prospective study. These factors may have led to a number of delayed or missed diagnoses for patients in the GERD, asthma, or control groups. Misdiagnosis may also have influenced our analyses, since asthma and COPD may be confused with one another in patients > 40 years of age, particularly in those with mild disease.45 Yet, all of these potential sources of misclassification will have been nondifferential and would have resulted in a small underestimation of the associations discussed below.

We studied, for the first time, the nature of the temporal relationships between cases of GERD and asthma in the same population and over the same time period. We found that patients with a first diagnosis of asthma had a significantly increased risk of a subsequent GERD diagnosis during a mean follow-up period of 3 years, most notably during the first year. This is in line with the hypothesis that the altered respiratory physiology in asthma patients may predispose them toward GERD.4 Respiratory obstruction can result in negative pleural pressures, increasing the pressure gradient between the thorax and abdominal cavity, thus promoting reflux.4

Conversely, we found that patients with a first diagnosis of GERD were not at a significantly increased risk of a subsequent diagnosis of asthma when other risk factors were taken into account. While these results do not support a role for GERD in predisposing patients to asthma,4647 it remains possible that GERD may trigger asthma episodes in individuals with preexisting asthma by one of two potential mechanisms. The reflux theory states that gastroesophageal refluxate may access the respiratory tract via the epiglottis, leading to local irritation and inflammation.48The reflex theory has also been proposed,4950 and it states that acidity in the esophagus can cause irritation elsewhere in the body through a vagally mediated reflex.51

Other risk factors for GERD and asthma were also examined. We found that asthma was significantly associated with a history of allergic rhinitis in patients with GERD, and that GERD was significantly associated with a history of IBS in patients with asthma. Similar associations have been seen in previous cross-sectional studies.15,5254

Several other theories have been advanced to explain why GERD and asthma seem to be linked. It remains possible that a third factor, such as obesity or smoking, increases the risk of both diseases,3233,3536,3839,5563 although a significant association between these risk factors and the diagnosis of GERD or asthma was not evident in our analyses.

A potential role for prescription medications also has been proposed. A number of asthma medications, such as anticholinergic agents, theophylline, and β2-agonists, are known to relax the lower esophageal sphincter through their action on smooth muscle,6466 and may predispose a patient to gastroesophageal reflux. It has been shown, however, that the abnormal gastroesophageal reflux seen in many asthma patients is not dependent on the use of a medication,6,67 and we did not find a clear association between the use of respiratory medications and a subsequent diagnosis of GERD.

Conversely, the treatment of GERD is thought to protect a patient from asthma, rather than predispose them to asthma. Acid-suppressive therapy has, in general, been shown to lead to better control of asthma symptoms, if not better objective measures of pulmonary function.4,13,6869 We were, however, unable to demonstrate any such effect in our study population, although the number of current users of acid-suppressive medications was small.

Whether or not treatment for GERD or asthma is useful for the prevention of asthma and GERD, respectively, although it is of general interest, should not be driving management decisions in primary care, as both conditions need appropriate treatment regardless of any relationship or association between them. It is more important that the association between these conditions be more widely recognized so that primary care physicians, in particular, are alert to their possible comorbid occurrence. This may result in better diagnosis and treatment for individuals affected by both GERD and asthma. Further research is needed to elucidate the pathophysiologic mechanisms linking asthma and GERD, and to further evaluate the potential avenues for effective treatment.

Abbreviations: BMI = body mass index; CI = confidence interval; GERD = gastroesophageal reflux disease; GP = general practitioner; GPRD = General Practice Research Database; IBS = irritable bowel syndrome; ICD = International Classification of Diseases; OR = odds ratio; RR = relative risk

This study was supported by a research grant from AstraZeneca.

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1. Design of the studies and case ascertainment.Grahic Jump Location
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Incidence Rate and RR of First Asthma Diagnosis in Patients With GERD Compared to an Age-Matched and Sex-Matched General Population Cohort Without a GERD Diagnosis (Study 1)*
* 

Values in parentheses are 95% CI.

 

RR estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted by age and sex.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. Distribution of Patients Developing and Not Developing Asthma and RR of Asthma Diagnosis Associated With Prior GERD and Other Potential Risk Factors (Study 1)
* 

Adjusted for all variables in the table, using Cox regression analysis.

 

Smoking status was unknown in 20.2% of patients, BMI could not be calculated in 29.8% of patients, and alcohol information was missing in 28.4% of patients.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 3. The Current Use of GI Medications in GERD Patients and Its Association With a First Diagnosis of Asthma During Follow-up (Study 1)
* 

Reference category (no prescription recorded), estimates of odds ratio (OR) were adjusted by sex, age, calendar year and COPD, allergic rhinitis, prior healthcare use, smoking, and prescription drug use, using unconditional logistic regression.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 4. Incidence Rate and RR of a GERD Diagnosis in Patients With Asthma Compared to an Age-Matched and Sex-Matched General Population Cohort Without an Asthma Diagnosis (Study 2)*
* 

Values in parentheses are 95% CI.

 

RR estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted by age and sex.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 5. Distribution of Patients Developing and Not Developing GERD and RR of GERD Diagnosis Associated With Prior Asthma and Other Potential Risk Factors (Study 2)
* 

Adjusted for all variables in the table, using Cox regression analysis.

 

Smoking status was unknown in 59.8% of patients, BMI could not be calculated in 57.1% of patients, and alcohol information was missing in 64.7% of patients.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 6. The Current Use of Corticosteroids and β2-Agonists in Asthma Patients and Its Association With a First Diagnosis of GERD During Follow-up
* 

Reference category (no use of drugs recorded). Estimates of OR were adjusted by sex, age, calendar year and peptic ulcer disease, IBS, prior health-care use, smoking, and drug use using unconditional logistic regression.

The authors are grateful to Chris Winchester for editorial advice and comments on a previous version of the manuscript.

Jaspersen, D, Kulig, M, Labenz, J, et al (2003) Prevalence of extra-oesophageal manifestations in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: an analysis based on the ProGERD Study.Aliment Pharmacol Ther17,1515-1520. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fouad, YM, Katz, PO, Hatlebakk, JG, et al Ineffective esophageal motility: the most common motility abnormality in patients with GERD-associated respiratory symptoms.Am J Gastroenterol1999;94,1464-1467. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gastal, OL, Castell, JA, Castell, DO Frequency and site of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with chest symptoms: studies using proximal and distal pH monitoring.Chest1994;106,1793-1796. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM, Richter, JE The role of gastroesophageal reflux in chronic cough and asthma.Chest1997;111,1389-1402. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Field, SK, Underwood, M, Brant, R, et al Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in asthma.Chest1996;109,316-322. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Sontag, SJ, O’Connell, S, Khandelwal, S, et al Most asthmatics have gastroesophageal reflux with or without bronchodilator therapy.Gastroenterology1990;99,613-620. [PubMed]
 
Ben-Noun, L Characteristics of comorbidity in adult asthma.Public Health Rev2001;29,49-61. [PubMed]
 
Dal Negro, R, Pomari, C, Micheletto, C, et al Prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in asthmatics: an Italian study.Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol1999;31,371-375. [PubMed]
 
Compte, L, Garrigues, V, Perpina, M, et al Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in asthma.J Asthma2000;37,175-182. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM, Guzzo, MR, Richter, JE 24-h esophageal pH testing in asthmatics: respiratory symptom correlation with esophageal acid events.Chest1999;115,654-659. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM, Guzzo, MR, Richter, JE The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in asthma patients without reflux symptoms.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;162,34-39. [PubMed]
 
Sontag, SJ, Schnell, TG, Miller, TQ, et al Prevalence of oesophagitis in asthmatics.Gut1992;33,872-876. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kiljander, TO, Salomaa, ER, Hietanen, EK, et al Gastroesophageal reflux in asthmatics: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with omeprazole.Chest1999;116,1257-1264. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vincent, D, Cohen-Jonathan, AM, Leport, J, et al Gastro-oesophageal reflux prevalence and relationship with bronchial reactivity in asthma.Eur Respir J1997;10,2255-2259. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
El-Serag, HB, Sonnenberg, A Comorbid occurrence of laryngeal or pulmonary disease with esophagitis in United States military veterans.Gastroenterology1997;113,755-760. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
El-Serag, HB, Gilger, M, Kuebeler, M, et al Extraesophageal associations of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children without neurologic defects.Gastroenterology2001;121,1294-1299. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gislason, T, Janson, C, Vermeire, P, et al Respiratory symptoms and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux: a population-based study of young adults in three European countries.Chest2002;121,158-163. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Locke, GR, 3rd, Talley, NJ, Fett, SL, et al Prevalence and clinical spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota.Gastroenterology1997;112,1448-1456. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wong, WM, Lai, KC, Lam, KF, et al Prevalence, clinical spectrum and health care utilization of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in a Chinese population: a population-based study.Aliment Pharmacol Ther2003;18,595-604. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ruhl, CE, Sonnenberg, A, Everhart, JE Hospitalization with respiratory disease following hiatal hernia and reflux esophagitis in a prospective, population-based study.Ann Epidemiol2001;11,477-483. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kotzan, J, Wade, W, Yu, HH Assessing NSAID prescription use as a predisposing factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease in a Medicaid population.Pharm Res2001;18,1367-1372. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ruigomez, A, Wallander, MA, Johansson, S, et al Natural history of gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnosed in general practice.Aliment Pharmacol Ther2004;20,751-760. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hollowell, J. General Practice Research Database: scope and quality of data. 1994; Office for Population Censuses and Surveys. London, UK:.
 
Jick, H, Jick, SS, Derby, LE Validation of information recorded on general practitioner based computerised data resource in the United Kingdom.BMJ1991;302,766-768. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jick, SS, Kaye, JA, Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C, et al Validity of the general practice research database.Pharmacotherapy2003;23,686-689. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hansell, A, Hollowell, J, Nichols, T, et al Use of the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) for respiratory epidemiology: a comparison with the 4th Morbidity Survey in General Practice (MSGP4).Thorax1999;54,413-419. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Johansson, S, Wallander, MA, Ruigomez, A, et al Is there any association between myocardial infarction, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and acid-suppressing drugs?Aliment Pharmacol Ther2003;18,973-978. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
McKeever, TM, Lewis, SA, Smith, C, et al Siblings, multiple births, and the incidence of allergic disease: a birth cohort study using the West Midlands general practice research database.Thorax2001;56,758-762. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
McKeever, TM, Lewis, SA, Smith, C, et al Early exposure to infections and antibiotics and the incidence of allergic disease: a birth cohort study with the West Midlands General Practice Research Database.J Allergy Clin Immunol2002;109,43-50. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Yunginger, JW, Reed, CE, O’Connell, EJ, et al A community-based study of the epidemiology of asthma: incidence rates, 1964–1983.Am Rev Respir Dis1992;146,888-894. [PubMed]
 
Basagana, X, Sunyer, J, Zock, JP, et al Incidence of asthma and its determinants among adults in Spain.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2001;164,1133-1137. [PubMed]
 
Albin, M, Rylander, L, Mikoczy, Z, et al Incidence of asthma in female Swedish hairdressers.Occup Environ Med2002;59,119-123. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Beckett, WS, Jacobs, DR, Jr, Yu, X, et al Asthma is associated with weight gain in females but not males, independent of physical activity.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2001;164,2045-2050. [PubMed]
 
Ownby, DR, Johnson, CC, Peterson, EL Incidence and prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma in a suburban population of young adults.Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol1996;77,304-308. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Norrman, E, Nystrom, L, Jonsson, E, et al Prevalence and incidence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis in Swedish teenagers.Allergy1998;53,28-35
 
Larsson, L Incidence of asthma in Swedish teenagers: relation to sex and smoking habits.Thorax1995;50,260-264. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Leino, T, Tammilehto, L, Paakkulainen, H, et al Occurrence of asthma and chronic bronchitis among female hairdressers: a questionnaire study.J Occup Environ Med1997;39,534-539. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gilliland, FD, Berhane, K, Islam, T, et al Obesity and the risk of newly diagnosed asthma in school-age children.Am J Epidemiol2003;158,406-415. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Strachan, DP, Butland, BK, Anderson, HR Incidence and prognosis of asthma and wheezing illness from early childhood to age 33 in a national British cohort.BMJ1996;312,1195-1199. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Anderson, HR, Pottier, AC, Strachan, DP Asthma from birth to age 23: incidence and relation to prior and concurrent atopic disease.Thorax1992;47,537-542. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Reijula, K, Haahtela, T, Klaukka, T, et al Incidence of occupational asthma and persistent asthma in young adults has increased in Finland.Chest1996;110,58-61. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kivity, S, Shochat, Z, Bressler, R, et al The characteristics of bronchial asthma among a young adult population.Chest1995;108,24-27. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kennedy, T, Jones, R The prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a UK population and the consultation behaviour of patients with these symptoms.Aliment Pharmacol Ther2000;14,1589-1594. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kaur, B, Anderson, HR, Austin, J, et al Prevalence of asthma symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment in 12–14 year old children across Great Britain (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, ISAAC UK).BMJ1998;316,118-124. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Soriano, JB, Maier, WC, Visick, G, et al Validation of general practitioner-diagnosed COPD in the UK General Practice Research Database.Eur J Epidemiol2001;17,1075-1080. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM Gastroesophageal reflux, asthma, and mechanisms of interaction.Am J Med2001;111(suppl),8S-12S
 
Harding, SM Acid reflux and asthma.Curr Opin Pulm Med2003;9,42-45. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Mays, EE Intrinsic asthma in adults: association with gastroesophageal reflux.JAMA1976;236,2626-2628. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Mansfield, LE, Stein, MR Gastroesophageal reflux and asthma: a possible reflex mechanism.Ann Allergy1978;41,224-226. [PubMed]
 
Canning, BJ, Mazzone, SB Reflex mechanisms in gastroesophageal reflux disease and asthma.Am J Med2003;115(suppl),45S-48S
 
Wright, RA, Miller, SA, Corsello, BF Acid-induced esophagobronchial-cardiac reflexes in humans.Gastroenterology1990;99,71-73. [PubMed]
 
Huerta, C, Garcia Rodriguez, LA, Wallander, MA, et al Risk of irritable bowel syndrome among asthma patients.Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf2002;11,31-35. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kennedy, TM, Jones, RH, Hungin, AP, et al Irritable bowel syndrome, gastro-oesophageal reflux, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in the general population.Gut1998;43,770-774. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Casale, TB, Dykewicz, MS Clinical implications of the allergic rhinitis-asthma link.Am J Med Sci2004;327,127-138. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dent, J, El-Serag, HB, Wallander, MA, et al The epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review.Gut2005;54,710-717. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nilsson, M, Johnsen, R, Ye, W, et al Obesity and estrogen as risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.JAMA2003;290,66-72. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ruhl, CE, Everhart, JE Overweight, but not high dietary fat intake, increases risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease hospitalization: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study: First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Ann Epidemiol1999;9,424-435. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Suganuma, N, Shigedo, Y, Adachi, H, et al Association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with weight gain and apnea, and their disturbance on sleep.Psychiatry Clin Neurosci2001;55,255-256. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Beckett, WS, Belanger, K, Gent, JF, et al Asthma among Puerto Rican Hispanics: a multi-ethnic comparison study of risk factors.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1996;154,894-899. [PubMed]
 
Camargo, CA, Jr, Weiss, ST, Zhang, S, et al Prospective study of body mass index, weight change, and risk of adult-onset asthma in women.Arch Intern Med1999;159,2582-2588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shaheen, SO, Sterne, JA, Montgomery, SM, et al Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults.Thorax1999;54,396-402. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Stanghellini, V Relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and lifestyle, psychosocial factors and comorbidity in the general population: results from the Domestic/International Gastroenterology Surveillance Study (DIGEST).Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl1999;231,29-37. [PubMed]
 
Watanabe, Y, Fujiwara, Y, Shiba, M, et al Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Japanese men.Scand J Gastroenterol2003;38,807-811. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Allen, M, Mellow, M, Robinson, MG, et al Comparison of calcium channel blocking agents and an anticholinergic agent on oesophageal function.Aliment Pharmacol Ther1987;1,153-159. [PubMed]
 
Ciccaglione, AF, Grossi, L, Cappello, G, et al Effect of hyoscine N-butylbromide on gastroesophageal reflux in normal subjects and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.Am J Gastroenterol2001;96,2306-2311. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Koerselman, J, Pursnani, KG, Peghini, P, et al Different effects of an oral anticholinergic drug on gastroesophageal reflux in upright and supine position in normal, ambulant subjects: a pilot study.Am J Gastroenterol1999;94,925-930. [PubMed]
 
Sontag, SJ, O’Connell, S, Khandelwal, S, et al Effect of positions, eating, and bronchodilators on gastroesophageal reflux in asthmatics.Dig Dis Sci1990;35,849-856. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Coughlan, JL, Gibson, PG, Henry, RL Medical treatment for reflux oesophagitis does not consistently improve asthma control: a systematic review.Thorax2001;56,198-204. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gibson PG, Henry RL, Coughlan JL. Gastro-oesophageal reflux treatment for asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (database online). Issue 3, 2003.
 

Figures

Figure Jump LinkFigure 1. Design of the studies and case ascertainment.Grahic Jump Location

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Incidence Rate and RR of First Asthma Diagnosis in Patients With GERD Compared to an Age-Matched and Sex-Matched General Population Cohort Without a GERD Diagnosis (Study 1)*
* 

Values in parentheses are 95% CI.

 

RR estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted by age and sex.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. Distribution of Patients Developing and Not Developing Asthma and RR of Asthma Diagnosis Associated With Prior GERD and Other Potential Risk Factors (Study 1)
* 

Adjusted for all variables in the table, using Cox regression analysis.

 

Smoking status was unknown in 20.2% of patients, BMI could not be calculated in 29.8% of patients, and alcohol information was missing in 28.4% of patients.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 3. The Current Use of GI Medications in GERD Patients and Its Association With a First Diagnosis of Asthma During Follow-up (Study 1)
* 

Reference category (no prescription recorded), estimates of odds ratio (OR) were adjusted by sex, age, calendar year and COPD, allergic rhinitis, prior healthcare use, smoking, and prescription drug use, using unconditional logistic regression.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 4. Incidence Rate and RR of a GERD Diagnosis in Patients With Asthma Compared to an Age-Matched and Sex-Matched General Population Cohort Without an Asthma Diagnosis (Study 2)*
* 

Values in parentheses are 95% CI.

 

RR estimated using Cox proportional hazards regression adjusted by age and sex.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 5. Distribution of Patients Developing and Not Developing GERD and RR of GERD Diagnosis Associated With Prior Asthma and Other Potential Risk Factors (Study 2)
* 

Adjusted for all variables in the table, using Cox regression analysis.

 

Smoking status was unknown in 59.8% of patients, BMI could not be calculated in 57.1% of patients, and alcohol information was missing in 64.7% of patients.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 6. The Current Use of Corticosteroids and β2-Agonists in Asthma Patients and Its Association With a First Diagnosis of GERD During Follow-up
* 

Reference category (no use of drugs recorded). Estimates of OR were adjusted by sex, age, calendar year and peptic ulcer disease, IBS, prior health-care use, smoking, and drug use using unconditional logistic regression.

References

Jaspersen, D, Kulig, M, Labenz, J, et al (2003) Prevalence of extra-oesophageal manifestations in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: an analysis based on the ProGERD Study.Aliment Pharmacol Ther17,1515-1520. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fouad, YM, Katz, PO, Hatlebakk, JG, et al Ineffective esophageal motility: the most common motility abnormality in patients with GERD-associated respiratory symptoms.Am J Gastroenterol1999;94,1464-1467. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gastal, OL, Castell, JA, Castell, DO Frequency and site of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with chest symptoms: studies using proximal and distal pH monitoring.Chest1994;106,1793-1796. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM, Richter, JE The role of gastroesophageal reflux in chronic cough and asthma.Chest1997;111,1389-1402. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Field, SK, Underwood, M, Brant, R, et al Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in asthma.Chest1996;109,316-322. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Sontag, SJ, O’Connell, S, Khandelwal, S, et al Most asthmatics have gastroesophageal reflux with or without bronchodilator therapy.Gastroenterology1990;99,613-620. [PubMed]
 
Ben-Noun, L Characteristics of comorbidity in adult asthma.Public Health Rev2001;29,49-61. [PubMed]
 
Dal Negro, R, Pomari, C, Micheletto, C, et al Prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux in asthmatics: an Italian study.Ital J Gastroenterol Hepatol1999;31,371-375. [PubMed]
 
Compte, L, Garrigues, V, Perpina, M, et al Prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in asthma.J Asthma2000;37,175-182. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM, Guzzo, MR, Richter, JE 24-h esophageal pH testing in asthmatics: respiratory symptom correlation with esophageal acid events.Chest1999;115,654-659. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM, Guzzo, MR, Richter, JE The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in asthma patients without reflux symptoms.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;162,34-39. [PubMed]
 
Sontag, SJ, Schnell, TG, Miller, TQ, et al Prevalence of oesophagitis in asthmatics.Gut1992;33,872-876. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kiljander, TO, Salomaa, ER, Hietanen, EK, et al Gastroesophageal reflux in asthmatics: a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study with omeprazole.Chest1999;116,1257-1264. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vincent, D, Cohen-Jonathan, AM, Leport, J, et al Gastro-oesophageal reflux prevalence and relationship with bronchial reactivity in asthma.Eur Respir J1997;10,2255-2259. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
El-Serag, HB, Sonnenberg, A Comorbid occurrence of laryngeal or pulmonary disease with esophagitis in United States military veterans.Gastroenterology1997;113,755-760. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
El-Serag, HB, Gilger, M, Kuebeler, M, et al Extraesophageal associations of gastroesophageal reflux disease in children without neurologic defects.Gastroenterology2001;121,1294-1299. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gislason, T, Janson, C, Vermeire, P, et al Respiratory symptoms and nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux: a population-based study of young adults in three European countries.Chest2002;121,158-163. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Locke, GR, 3rd, Talley, NJ, Fett, SL, et al Prevalence and clinical spectrum of gastroesophageal reflux: a population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota.Gastroenterology1997;112,1448-1456. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wong, WM, Lai, KC, Lam, KF, et al Prevalence, clinical spectrum and health care utilization of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in a Chinese population: a population-based study.Aliment Pharmacol Ther2003;18,595-604. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ruhl, CE, Sonnenberg, A, Everhart, JE Hospitalization with respiratory disease following hiatal hernia and reflux esophagitis in a prospective, population-based study.Ann Epidemiol2001;11,477-483. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kotzan, J, Wade, W, Yu, HH Assessing NSAID prescription use as a predisposing factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease in a Medicaid population.Pharm Res2001;18,1367-1372. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ruigomez, A, Wallander, MA, Johansson, S, et al Natural history of gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnosed in general practice.Aliment Pharmacol Ther2004;20,751-760. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hollowell, J. General Practice Research Database: scope and quality of data. 1994; Office for Population Censuses and Surveys. London, UK:.
 
Jick, H, Jick, SS, Derby, LE Validation of information recorded on general practitioner based computerised data resource in the United Kingdom.BMJ1991;302,766-768. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jick, SS, Kaye, JA, Vasilakis-Scaramozza, C, et al Validity of the general practice research database.Pharmacotherapy2003;23,686-689. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hansell, A, Hollowell, J, Nichols, T, et al Use of the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) for respiratory epidemiology: a comparison with the 4th Morbidity Survey in General Practice (MSGP4).Thorax1999;54,413-419. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Johansson, S, Wallander, MA, Ruigomez, A, et al Is there any association between myocardial infarction, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and acid-suppressing drugs?Aliment Pharmacol Ther2003;18,973-978. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
McKeever, TM, Lewis, SA, Smith, C, et al Siblings, multiple births, and the incidence of allergic disease: a birth cohort study using the West Midlands general practice research database.Thorax2001;56,758-762. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
McKeever, TM, Lewis, SA, Smith, C, et al Early exposure to infections and antibiotics and the incidence of allergic disease: a birth cohort study with the West Midlands General Practice Research Database.J Allergy Clin Immunol2002;109,43-50. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Yunginger, JW, Reed, CE, O’Connell, EJ, et al A community-based study of the epidemiology of asthma: incidence rates, 1964–1983.Am Rev Respir Dis1992;146,888-894. [PubMed]
 
Basagana, X, Sunyer, J, Zock, JP, et al Incidence of asthma and its determinants among adults in Spain.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2001;164,1133-1137. [PubMed]
 
Albin, M, Rylander, L, Mikoczy, Z, et al Incidence of asthma in female Swedish hairdressers.Occup Environ Med2002;59,119-123. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Beckett, WS, Jacobs, DR, Jr, Yu, X, et al Asthma is associated with weight gain in females but not males, independent of physical activity.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2001;164,2045-2050. [PubMed]
 
Ownby, DR, Johnson, CC, Peterson, EL Incidence and prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma in a suburban population of young adults.Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol1996;77,304-308. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Norrman, E, Nystrom, L, Jonsson, E, et al Prevalence and incidence of asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis in Swedish teenagers.Allergy1998;53,28-35
 
Larsson, L Incidence of asthma in Swedish teenagers: relation to sex and smoking habits.Thorax1995;50,260-264. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Leino, T, Tammilehto, L, Paakkulainen, H, et al Occurrence of asthma and chronic bronchitis among female hairdressers: a questionnaire study.J Occup Environ Med1997;39,534-539. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gilliland, FD, Berhane, K, Islam, T, et al Obesity and the risk of newly diagnosed asthma in school-age children.Am J Epidemiol2003;158,406-415. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Strachan, DP, Butland, BK, Anderson, HR Incidence and prognosis of asthma and wheezing illness from early childhood to age 33 in a national British cohort.BMJ1996;312,1195-1199. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Anderson, HR, Pottier, AC, Strachan, DP Asthma from birth to age 23: incidence and relation to prior and concurrent atopic disease.Thorax1992;47,537-542. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Reijula, K, Haahtela, T, Klaukka, T, et al Incidence of occupational asthma and persistent asthma in young adults has increased in Finland.Chest1996;110,58-61. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kivity, S, Shochat, Z, Bressler, R, et al The characteristics of bronchial asthma among a young adult population.Chest1995;108,24-27. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kennedy, T, Jones, R The prevalence of gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a UK population and the consultation behaviour of patients with these symptoms.Aliment Pharmacol Ther2000;14,1589-1594. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kaur, B, Anderson, HR, Austin, J, et al Prevalence of asthma symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment in 12–14 year old children across Great Britain (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood, ISAAC UK).BMJ1998;316,118-124. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Soriano, JB, Maier, WC, Visick, G, et al Validation of general practitioner-diagnosed COPD in the UK General Practice Research Database.Eur J Epidemiol2001;17,1075-1080. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM Gastroesophageal reflux, asthma, and mechanisms of interaction.Am J Med2001;111(suppl),8S-12S
 
Harding, SM Acid reflux and asthma.Curr Opin Pulm Med2003;9,42-45. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Mays, EE Intrinsic asthma in adults: association with gastroesophageal reflux.JAMA1976;236,2626-2628. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Mansfield, LE, Stein, MR Gastroesophageal reflux and asthma: a possible reflex mechanism.Ann Allergy1978;41,224-226. [PubMed]
 
Canning, BJ, Mazzone, SB Reflex mechanisms in gastroesophageal reflux disease and asthma.Am J Med2003;115(suppl),45S-48S
 
Wright, RA, Miller, SA, Corsello, BF Acid-induced esophagobronchial-cardiac reflexes in humans.Gastroenterology1990;99,71-73. [PubMed]
 
Huerta, C, Garcia Rodriguez, LA, Wallander, MA, et al Risk of irritable bowel syndrome among asthma patients.Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf2002;11,31-35. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kennedy, TM, Jones, RH, Hungin, AP, et al Irritable bowel syndrome, gastro-oesophageal reflux, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness in the general population.Gut1998;43,770-774. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Casale, TB, Dykewicz, MS Clinical implications of the allergic rhinitis-asthma link.Am J Med Sci2004;327,127-138. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dent, J, El-Serag, HB, Wallander, MA, et al The epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review.Gut2005;54,710-717. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nilsson, M, Johnsen, R, Ye, W, et al Obesity and estrogen as risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux symptoms.JAMA2003;290,66-72. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ruhl, CE, Everhart, JE Overweight, but not high dietary fat intake, increases risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease hospitalization: the NHANES I Epidemiologic Followup Study: First National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Ann Epidemiol1999;9,424-435. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Suganuma, N, Shigedo, Y, Adachi, H, et al Association of gastroesophageal reflux disease with weight gain and apnea, and their disturbance on sleep.Psychiatry Clin Neurosci2001;55,255-256. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Beckett, WS, Belanger, K, Gent, JF, et al Asthma among Puerto Rican Hispanics: a multi-ethnic comparison study of risk factors.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1996;154,894-899. [PubMed]
 
Camargo, CA, Jr, Weiss, ST, Zhang, S, et al Prospective study of body mass index, weight change, and risk of adult-onset asthma in women.Arch Intern Med1999;159,2582-2588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shaheen, SO, Sterne, JA, Montgomery, SM, et al Birth weight, body mass index and asthma in young adults.Thorax1999;54,396-402. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Stanghellini, V Relationship between upper gastrointestinal symptoms and lifestyle, psychosocial factors and comorbidity in the general population: results from the Domestic/International Gastroenterology Surveillance Study (DIGEST).Scand J Gastroenterol Suppl1999;231,29-37. [PubMed]
 
Watanabe, Y, Fujiwara, Y, Shiba, M, et al Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Japanese men.Scand J Gastroenterol2003;38,807-811. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Allen, M, Mellow, M, Robinson, MG, et al Comparison of calcium channel blocking agents and an anticholinergic agent on oesophageal function.Aliment Pharmacol Ther1987;1,153-159. [PubMed]
 
Ciccaglione, AF, Grossi, L, Cappello, G, et al Effect of hyoscine N-butylbromide on gastroesophageal reflux in normal subjects and patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease.Am J Gastroenterol2001;96,2306-2311. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Koerselman, J, Pursnani, KG, Peghini, P, et al Different effects of an oral anticholinergic drug on gastroesophageal reflux in upright and supine position in normal, ambulant subjects: a pilot study.Am J Gastroenterol1999;94,925-930. [PubMed]
 
Sontag, SJ, O’Connell, S, Khandelwal, S, et al Effect of positions, eating, and bronchodilators on gastroesophageal reflux in asthmatics.Dig Dis Sci1990;35,849-856. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Coughlan, JL, Gibson, PG, Henry, RL Medical treatment for reflux oesophagitis does not consistently improve asthma control: a systematic review.Thorax2001;56,198-204. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gibson PG, Henry RL, Coughlan JL. Gastro-oesophageal reflux treatment for asthma in adults and children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (database online). Issue 3, 2003.
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

CHEST Journal Articles
  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543