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Immune Stimulation in Sepsis: To be or Not to be?

Lena M. Napolitano, MD, FCCP
Author and Funding Information

Affiliations: Baltimore, MD
 ,  Dr. Napolitano is Professor of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine.

Correspondence to: Lena M. Napolitano MD, FCCP, Professor of Surgery, University of Maryland School of Medicine, 10 North Greene St, Room 5C-122, Baltimore, MD 21201; e-mail: lnapolitano@smail.umaryland.edu



Chest. 2005;127(6):1882-1885. doi:10.1378/chest.127.6.1882
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The colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) comprise a group of cytokines that are central to the hematopoiesis of blood cells, as well as to the maintenance of homeostasis and overall immune competence. This group consists of the macrophage-CSF (M-CSF), granulocyte-CSF (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage-CSF (GM-CSF), and multi-CSF (interleukin [IL]-3). M-CSF and G-CSF are relatively lineage-specific, having a role in the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of macrophages, neutrophils, and their precursors. In contrast, GM-CSF and multi-CSF function at earlier stages of lineage commitment regulating the expansion and maturation of primitive hematopoietic progenitors.1 GM-CSF and G-CSF are naturally occurring cytokines that stimulate the production and antibacterial function of both neutrophils and monocytes.

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