The third and last section covers nonpulmonary thoracic diseases, including diseases of the chest wall, trachea, diaphragm, pleura, and mediastinum. The chapter on chest wall disorders discusses the decision to operate as well as current surgical techniques used for pectus excavatum, pectus carinatum, and Poland syndrome. The classification and recommended strategies for the diagnosis and treatment of chest wall tumors are very well-summarized. Key points discussed in the chapter on the trachea include congenital and acquired lesions, especially the management of postintubation injuries, and the chapter on the diaphragm includes information on congenital and acquired diaphragmatic hernias (eg, sliding hiatal hernia and paraesophageal hernia). The latter chapter emphasizes the mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux disease, how to assess esophagitis and Barrett esophagus, and the goals of medical and surgical treatment for patients with these conditions. Other topics include diaphragmatic paralysis and the few indications for diaphragmatic pacing.