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Editorials |

The Interaction of Vascular Stiffness and Cardiovascular Events in Women : Insights From the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study

Hector O. Ventura, MD; Mandeep R. Mehra, MD
Author and Funding Information

Affiliations: New Orleans, LA
 ,  Dr. Ventura is Chairman, Graduate Medical Education Committee, and Dr. Mehra is Vice Chair, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Cardiomyopathy and Heart Transplantation Center, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, New Orleans, LA.

Correspondence to: Hector O. Ventura, MD, Ochsner Clinic Foundation, 1514 Jefferson Highway, New Orleans, LA 70121; e-mail: Hventura@ochsner.org



Chest. 2005;127(5):1477-1480. doi:10.1378/chest.127.5.1477
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1Dubey, R, Imthurm, B, Zacharia, L, et al (2004) Hormone replacement therapy and cardiovascular disease: what went wrong and where do we go from here?Hypertension44,789-7952Hulley, S, Grady, D, Bush, T, et al Randomized trial of estrogen plus progestin for secondary prevention of coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women. Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) Research Group.JAMA1998;280,605-6133Grady, D, Applegate, W, Bush, T, et al Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS): design, methods, and baseline characteristics.Control Clin Trials1998;19,314-3354Grady, D, Herrington, D, Bittner, V, et al Cardiovascular disease outcomes during 6.8 years of hormone therapy: Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study follow-up (HERS II).JAMA2002;288,49-575Bibbins-Domingo, K, Lin, F, Vittinghoff, E, et al Predictors of heart failure among women with coronary disease.Circulation2004;110,1424-14306Mahomed, FA The physiology and clinical use of the sphygmograph.Med Times Gazette (Lond)1872;1,62-657Mahomed, FA The etiology of Bright’s disease and the prealbuminuric stage.Med Chir Trans1874;57,197-2288O’Rourke, MF Arterial stiffness and hypertension. Izzo, JL Black, HR eds.Hypertension primer: the essentials of high blood pressure 2nd ed.1999,160-162 Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins. Baltimore, MD: 9Franklin, SS, Khan, SA, Wong, ND, et al The importance of pulse pressure and systolic blood pressure in predicting coronary heart disease in older adults: The Framingham Study.Circulation1999;100,354-36010O’Rourke, MF Isolated systolic hypertension, pulse pressure, and arterial stiffness as risks for cardiovascular disease.Curr Hypertens Rep1999;3,204-21111Smulyan, H, Safar, ME Systolic blood pressure revisited.J Am Coll Cardiol1997;29,1407-141312O’Rourke, MF, Staessen, JA, Vlachopoulos, C, et al Clinical applications of arterial stiffness: definitions and reference values.Am J Hypertens2002;15,426-44413Ventura, H, Messerli, FH, Oigman, W, et al Impaired systemic arterial compliance in borderline hypertension.Am Heart J1984;108,132-13614Wang, YX, Fitch, RM Vascular stiffness: measurements, mechanisms and implications.Curr Vasc Pharmacol2004;2,379-38415Madhavan, S, Ooi, WL, Cohen, H, et al Relation of pulse pressure and blood pressure reduction to the incidence of myocardial infarction.Hypertension1994;23,395-40116Fang, J, Madhavan, S, Cohen, H, et al Measures of blood pressure and myocardial infarction in treated hypertensive patients.J Hypertens1995;13,413-41917Benetos, A, Safar, M, Rudnichi, A, et al Pulse pressure: a predictor of long-term cardiovascular mortality in a French male population.Hypertension1997;30,1410-141518Chae, CU, Pfeffer, MA, Glynn, RJ, et al Increased pulse pressure and risk of heart failure in the elderly.JAMA1999;281,634-63919Miura, K, Dyer, AR, Greenland, P, et al Pulse pressure compared with other blood pressure indexes in the prediction of 25-year cardiovascular and all-cause mortality rates: the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry Study.Hypertension2001;38,232-23720Antikainen, RL, Jousilahti, P, Vanhanen, H, et al Excess mortality associated with increased pulse pressure among middle-aged men and women is explained by high systolic blood pressure.J Hypertens2000;18,417-42321Lewington, S, Clarke, R, Qizilbash, N, et al Age-specific relevance of usual blood pressure to vascular mortality: a meta-analysis of individual data for one million adults in 61 prospective studies.Lancet2002;360,1903-191322Kawecka-Jaszcz, K, Czarnecka, D, Olszanecka, A, et al The effect of hormone replacement therapy on arterial blood pressure and vascular compliance in postmenopausal women with arterial hypertension.J Hum Hypertens2002;16,509-51623Miura, S, Tanaka, E, Mori, A, et al Hormone replacement therapy improves arterial stiffness in normotensive postmenopausal women.Maturitas2003;45,293-29824Teede, HJ, Liang, YL, Kotsopoulos, D, et al Placebo-controlled trial of transdermal estrogen therapy alone in postmenopausal women: effects on arterial compliance and endothelial function.Climacteric2002;5,160-16925Westendorp, IC, de Kleijn, MJ, Bots, ML, et al The effect of hormone replacement therapy on arterial distensibility and compliance in perimenopausal women: a 2-year randomised trial.Atherosclerosis2000;152,149-15726Schiffrin, EL Vascular stiffening and arterial compliance: implications for systolic blood pressure.Am J Hypertens2004;17,S39-S48

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