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Tracheomalacia and Tracheobronchomalacia in Children and Adults*: An In-depth Review

Kelly A. Carden, MD; Philip M. Boiselle, MD, FCCP; David A. Waltz, MD; Armin Ernst, MD, FCCP
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*From the Divisions of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (Drs. Carden and Ernst) Thoracic Imaging (Dr. Boiselle), Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center; and the Division of Respiratory Diseases (Dr. Waltz), Children’s Hospital, Boston, MA.

Correspondence to: Armin Ernst, MD, FCCP, Director, Interventional Pulmonology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Ave, Boston, MA 02446; e-mail: aernst@bidmc.harvard.edu



Chest. 2005;127(3):984-1005. doi:10.1378/chest.127.3.984
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Tracheomalacia and tracheobronchomalacia are disorders that are encountered in both pediatric and adult medicine. Despite increasing recognition of these disease processes, there remains some uncertainty regarding their identification, causes, and treatment. This article is intended to be a comprehensive review of both the adult and pediatric forms of the diseases, and includes sections on the historical aspects of the disorders, and their classification, associated conditions, histopathology, and natural history. We also review the various modalities that are used for diagnosis as well as the state of the art of treatment, including airway stent placement and surgical intervention.

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