It must be emphasized that this is not a strategy to be undertaken without appropriate consideration of the potential risks associated with the challenges to the neutropenic and thrombocytopenic patient caused by exposure to general anesthesia, a thoracotomy, and a lung resection. The authors, however, have shown that, in their hands, expeditious surgical resection is not associated with an unacceptably high rate of either excessive bleeding or bacterial infectious complications, and that it reduces the mortality rate to approximately 10%. This is an impressive decrease from the mortality rate range of 30% up to 90% that has been reported1–3 in the literature for similar patients with invasive aspergillosis who were treated with antifungal therapy. This is a significant advance in outcomes and establishes this seemingly aggressive approach as the standard. This final observation rests on the assumption that the lessons learned in Switzerland will be used. These lessons include the need for expeditious preoperative decision making, the requirement for appropriate and sufficient surgical procedures to be performed, and the absolute mandate for interdisciplinary, collegial perioperative care of these complex patients. This latter observation acknowledges the need for maximally informed decision making as regards ventilator management, critical care, hematologic support (eg, platelet and/or WBC transfusion considerations), infectious disease guidance of antibiotic/antifungal usage, surgical timing, and operative performance.