As our knowledge base expands, this attitude is clearly changing. Data have gradually accumulated demonstrating that for specific medical and surgical diagnoses, a tighter control of hyperglycemia improves morbidity, mortality, and other outcome measures in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. For example, a review article1concluded that the mortality risk increased 3.9-fold in a group of nondiabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction whose BG levels were in a range from ≥ 109.8 to 144 mg/dL. In a cardiac surgical model, mortality correlated with BG level in a dose-dependent manner with the lowest mortality occurring in the group with a mean postoperative BG level of < 150 mg/dL.2There is an increase in serious infections including sepsis, pneumonia, and wound infections in postoperative diabetic patients with elevated BG levels.3Mortality and functional recovery after acute stroke correlated with BG in a nondiabetic patient group.4In an important study, Van den Berghe et al5concluded that using insulin to maintain BG levels at ≤ 110 mg/dL in critically ill patients in a surgical ICU reduced morbidity and mortality, bloodstream infections, acute renal failure requiring dialysis or hemofiltration, and critical illness polyneuropathy. A recent study6 showed that mean and maximum BG values were significantly higher among nonsurvivors in a heterogeneous group of critically ill general medical, surgical, and cardiac patients. In this study, the lowest hospital mortality occurred in patients with a mean BG of 80 to 99 mg/dL and increased progressively as BG values increased.