0
Review |

Mycobacterium avium complex Pulmonary Disease in Patients Without HIV Infection* FREE TO VIEW

Stephen K. Field, MD, FCCP; Dina Fisher, MD; Robert L. Cowie, MD, MSc
Author and Funding Information

*From the Division of Respiratory Medicine, University of Calgary Medical School, Calgary, AB, Canada.

Correspondence to: Stephen K. Field, MD, FCCP, Room 1410, Health Science Centre, 3330 Hospital Dr NW, Calgary, AB, Canada T2N 4N1; e-mail sfield@ucalgary.ca



Chest. 2004;126(2):566-581. doi:10.1378/chest.126.2.566
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is ubiquitous. It is found in various freshwater and saltwater sources around the world, including hot water pipes. Although the organism was identified in the 1890s, its potential to cause human disease was only recognized 50 years later. Only a minority of people exposed to the organism will acquire MAC lung disease, usually those with underlying lung disease or immunosuppression. MAC may, however, cause progressive parenchymal lung disease and bronchiectasis in patients without underlying lung disease, particularly in middle-aged and elderly women. Preliminary data suggest that the interferon-γ pathways may be deficient in elderly women with MAC lung disease. Other groups of patients who are more likely to harbor MAC in their lungs include patients with a cystic fibrosis or an abnormal α1-antiproteinase gene and patients with certain chest wall abnormalities. Treatment results continue to be disappointing, and the mortality of patients with MAC lung disease remains high. A PubMed search identified 38 reports of the treatment of MAC lung disease. Apart from the British Thoracic Society study, the only published controlled investigation, the studies published since 1994 have included a macrolide, either clarithromycin or azithromycin, usually in combination with ethambutol and a rifamycin. If success is defined as eradication of the organism without relapse over a period of several years after treatment has been discontinued, the reported treatment success rate with the macrolide containing regimens is approximately 55%. The prolonged treatment period, side effects, and possibly reinfection rather than relapse are responsible for the high failure rate.

The clinical presentation of Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (Mycobacterium avium complex [MAC]) infection depends on the population studied. MAC can be isolated from the sputum of apparently healthy individuals; it may be present in association with, but not appear to contribute to other lung diseases; or it may cause the progression of underlying lung disease.14 MAC may cause progressive lung disease leading to respiratory failure and even death in previously healthy patients, usually elderly women without a history of lung disease or immunodeficiency.2 Disseminated disease may occur in immunocompromised patients, especially in those infected with the HIV.57 Paradoxically, patients with disseminated disease rarely have clinically important pulmonary disease.810 In children, apart from those with cystic fibrosis and those with HIV infection, MAC disease usually presents as cervical lymphadenopathy.11

It appears that MAC lung disease is becoming increasingly prevalent.1216 Some of this apparent increase is due to greater recognition of its role in conditions such as bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis, but most is likely due to the “graying” of the population.2,1720 It has been suggested that exposure to tuberculosis and bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination may offer some immunity, and that the declining rates of these conditions may explain some of this increase in infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM).2123 It has been reported that patients with MAC lung disease have a different immune profile than healthy people with skin hypersensitivity to MAC antigen.24 Traditionally, therapy for MAC lung disease has consisted of antituberculosis medications, but treatment outcomes have been disappointing.8,25Adverse medication reactions, treatment failures, and frequent relapses often preclude successful therapy. Surgery has been advocated for patients with localized disease, especially for those who fail to eradicate MAC from their sputum with medication.2630 Since the introduction of the newer macrolides, clarithromycin and azithromycin, treatment results have improved.8 The purpose of this article is to review the available literature and provide an update on lung disease due to MAC in patients without HIV infection.

Mycobacteria that infect other species and mycobacterial saprophytes were identified soon after Koch’s discovery of the tuberculosis bacillus, but were only widely recognized to be human pathogens in the 1950s.18 Various designations have been used to distinguish these other mycobacterial species from tuberculosis, including: paratubercle or pseudotubercle, anonymous, atypical, environmental, opportunistic, nontuberculous, and mycobacteria other than tuberculosis.31 NTM is the currently favored term.8,25,3132

An avian form of tuberculosis was described in the 1860s, and by 1890 it was recognized that the avian bacillus was different from tuberculosis.31 In the 1930s, Pinner33reported that NTM could be cultured from water and other environmental sources, and could be isolated from human specimens. He recognized that some mycobacteria were chromogenic and some were rapid growers, but he failed to develop a workable classification for the NTM. The first case of lung infection due to NTM was reported in 1943. The patient was an elderly retired miner with a clinical syndrome consistent with silicotuberculosis. An acid-fast bacillus, which was not Mycobacterium tuberculosis, was isolated repeatedly from his sputum. It was distinct from avian tuberculosis but had many similar features.34

Nearly 20 years after the attempt by Pinner33 to develop a coherent classification of the NTM, Timpe and Runyon35 analyzed NTM from various parts of the United States and classified them into four groups by colony appearance and growth characteristics. All strains were bacilliform and acid fast. Group 1 organisms are photochromogens; colonies form pigment only after exposure to light, and include Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium marinum.,35 Group 2 organisms are scotochromogens, capable of forming pigment in the dark, and include Mycobacterium gordonae. Organisms in the group 3 belong to the M avium-intracellulare family and are nonchromogenic. Group 4 members are the rapid growers. Colonies can appear within 3 to 7 days, and include the closely related Mycobacterium fortuitum, Mycobacterium chelonae, and Mycobacterium abscessus.

MAC, representative of group 3 of Timpe and Runyon,35has been found around the world. Reports from Australia, India, Japan, Israel, Thailand, South Africa, various European countries, and North America have documented its presence in different environmental sources, including house dust, soil, birds, and farm animals.3645 It has even been found in cigarette components, including the tobacco, filter, and paper.46

Strain analysis suggests that animal-to-man transmission is not an important source of infection even though MAC is an important cause of disease in swine and poultry.4142 MAC was isolated from 25% of the water samples collected along the East coast of the United States. Most isolates were collected in South Carolina, Georgia, and the Gulf states.47 It is found in both freshwater and saltwater, and has even been found in hospital hot water systems.4751 Presumably, aerosolized water serves as the main source of infection.8,5051 One hypothesis relates the increased prevalence of MAC lung disease to the change in our hygiene habits from bathing to showering, and therefore aerosolizing more water.52It does not appear that person-to-person transmission of MAC is a concern.53

M avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare were initially distinguished by their relative pathogenicity for chickens and rabbits, respectively.54Currently, most laboratories report these as M avium-intracellulare or MAC because the species are so similar. Moreover, demographics, symptoms, radiologic features, and responses to therapy for patients infected with these two species are indistinguishable.55

Exposure to NTM can cause cross-reactions with tuberculin. Tuberculin skin testing was performed as part of the large international bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination programs coordinated by the World Health Organization and the United Nations Children’s Fund in the late 1940s and 1950s.56In Northern countries, reactions to tuberculin were either strong or absent and correlated with the local prevalence of tuberculosis.57 In some geographic regions, primarily in warmer climates, a large proportion of the children acquired a low-grade or intermediate-strength reaction, also called a “nonspecific” reaction to tuberculin testing.57The prevalence of nonspecific reactivity varied with geographic location and did not correlate with the local prevalence of tuberculosis or with the prevalence of chest radiograph abnormalities due to tuberculosis infection.58 A high proportion of those individuals with nonspecific reactivity to tuberculin responded to protein derivative of M avium.,58 These and similar reports, and previous veterinary experience that nonspecific reactivity in cattle occurred in the absence of pathologic findings of tuberculosis in animals that were exposed to M avium, suggest that M avium may cause cross-reactions to tuberculin.,58

Epidemiologic studies59have shown that many healthy people have positive skin test reactions to MAC, but only a small number of patients acquire clinical lung disease. In the late 1950s, screening naval recruits for tuberculosis with routine skin testing and chest radiographs began in the United States of America. Skin test and chest radiograph interpretation were confounded by the presence of abnormal results due to NTM and endemic fungi. The chest radiograph appearances of disease due to NTM and endemic fungi can be confused with tuberculosis.6062 To help clarify the prevalence of tuberculosis infection, skin testing was done with tuberculin, histoplasmin, and antigen derived from killed MAC, or “Battey” antigen.63 MAC has been called the Battey bacillus after the name of the state hospital in Rome, GA, where patients with MAC lung disease were first thoroughly studied.6364 Overall, one third of naval recruits had positive skin test reactions to the MAC antigen.59 The prevalence of positive skin test reactions to MAC antigen ranged from 10 to 20% in recruits from the north and west United States and increased to > 70% in recruits from the Southeast.59 Once it was recognized that MAC was pathogenic, and mycobacterial cultures became routine, MAC was isolated from only a minority of patients with tuberculosis-like illness, even in the southeast United States, where most people have skin hypersensitivity to MAC. Although the skin test antigens have been useful as an epidemiologic tool, surface antigens are shared by different mycobacterial species, and cross-reactions limit their usefulness as diagnostic tools for NTM lung disease.65

As the prevalence of tuberculosis declined sharply after the introduction of effective chemotherapy in the 1950s, reports indicated an increase in the number of patients with tuberculosis-like illness due to NTM. Further instances of NTM disease were detected as more mycobacterial cultures were tested for drug susceptibility. In the 1950s, sputum from approximately 1 to 2% of patients admitted to sanatoria in Florida and Georgia grew NTM.63,66Fifteen cases of NTM pulmonary disease were detected among 1,320 patients admitted to a New England hospital with suspected tuberculosis in the early 1960s.67 This pathogenic organism belonged to group 3 of Timpe and Runyon,35 or the MAC, in 11 of these 15 patients.67Moreover, 66 of the hospitalized patients (5%) had random isolates of NTM from their sputum on one or more occasion. A Veteran’s Administration hospital survey68 between 1963 and 1965 found that the majority of NTM pulmonary disease was due to M kansasii, with approximately one third due to MAC. Patients with MAC lung disease tended to be older than patients with lung disease due to M kansasii, and the majority of patients with MAC had underlying lung disease including COPD, bronchiectasis, healed tuberculosis, or silicosis.,68

Between the 3.5-year periods of January 1963 to July 1966 and October 1968 to April 1972, the number of tuberculosis cases at the Medical College of Wisconsin declined 17%, but the number of cases of infection due to MAC increased from 26 to 123.69 Studies38 from other countries suggest that the prevalence of NTM, including MAC, have increased. Between 1967 and 1971, 289 of the 3,150 mycobacterial isolates (9%) from the greater Boston area were NTM, and 117 were identified as MAC.70The prevalence increased in Texas between 1967 and 1976.71

In 1979 to 1980, one third of the mycobacterial isolates reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were NTM, and 61% of these were MAC.72 Data collected in the United States between 1981 and 1983 demonstrated higher rates of NTM disease in women, African Americans and Hispanics, and urban residents than those in the earlier report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.12 In the 3.5-year period between April 1982 and October 1985, the Cleveland Clinic reported 129 M tuberculosis and 79 MAC isolates; 92 isolates and 56 isolates, respectively, were from pulmonary specimens.,54 Prince and colleagues2 reported that the number of cases of tuberculosis declined and the number of MAC lung disease cases increased at two Philadelphia hospitals between 1978 and 1987.

Prior to the publication by Prince and colleagues,2 most reports of MAC lung disease were from referral institutions or sanatoria, many from within the Veteran’s Administration system.2 Not surprisingly, the patients were predominately male with a history of tobacco and/or alcohol abuse and underlying lung disease.73 Most patients had extensive cavitary disease, and only a minority had normal chest radiograph findings or abnormalities with a fibronodular appearance.60 Prince and colleagues2 recognized that fibronodular bronchiectasis was a common manifestation of MAC in the lung, primarily seen in elderly, often thin, women without apparent immunosuppression or underlying lung disease. Some of the apparent increase in MAC lung disease may be due to the recognition that fibronodular bronchiectasis was also a manifestation of MAC infection, and clinicians began to collect specimens for mycobacterial culture from patients with bronchiectasis and/or chest radiograph abnormalities with a fibronodular appearance after the publication by Prince and coworkers.2 Most patients with MAC lung disease in an Oregon health maintenance organization between 1975 and 1986 were elderly women without preexisting lung disease.74They represented 30% of the cases with pleuropulmonary mycobacterial infections. The ratio of M tuberculosis to NTM isolates fell from 3.2 to 1 between 1976 and 1981, to 1 to 1.6 between 1986 and 1991 in a community hospital in South Carolina.75

Patients without obvious lung disease may also have MAC isolated from their sputum.1 The term colonized was previously used to describe this condition.,62,76Further supporting the concept of transient colonization, MAC was isolated from 11% of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis at Bellevue Hospital, but these isolates did not appear to be clinically significant.77 According to the first American Thoracic Society (ATS) statement on the diagnosis and treatment of NTM published in 1990,25 repeated isolation of NTM from the sputum of an individual without fibrocavitary disease does not necessarily represent disease but may be due to colonization that does not require therapy. More recently, the introduction of high-resolution CT (HRCT) and reports66 of slow progression of lung disease, sometimes over decades, in patients with fibronodular bronchiectasis, have demonstrated the importance of treating these patients. The repeated isolation of MAC from sputum is now believed to represent infection, and treatment is recommended to prevent the development and progression of lung disease.8 If the clinical decision is made to withhold therapy, careful monitoring for disease progression is mandatory.8 Unfortunately, there are no prospective, controlled trials allowing estimation of the risk of these patients acquiring progressive lung disease. In the absence of controlled trials, it is unknown how frequently sputum will convert to negative spontaneously, what proportion of patients with M avium in their sputum will acquire progressive lung disease, and whether treatment will alter the course of the disease.

Lung disease caused by MAC was first described in sanatorium patients with suspected tuberculosis.34,64 Patients with MAC lung disease tended to be older, were more often white, and were more likely to have underlying lung disease than patients with tuberculosis.36,69 Unlike tuberculosis, patients with MAC lung disease are not contagious, and family members and other contacts, including health-care workers and other patients in the health-care facilities, were usually not infected.35,53

Male patients predominated in the reports of MAC lung disease from the 1950s to the 1980s. Most patients in the treatment trials over the last decade have been elderly women without a history of underlying lung disease. Rather than bilateral upper lobe fibrocavitary disease, the traditional presentation of MAC lung disease, women usually acquire fibronodular disease with bronchiectasis.2

The insidious nature of this illness has been emphasized repeatedly, as symptoms may be present for months or years before the diagnosis is made.67,78Early cases may be asymptomatic and only discovered by routine screening chest radiographs.79 Most patients experience chronic cough, usually productive of purulent sputum but usually without hemoptysis (Table 1 ).,2,8,25 Constitutional symptoms including fever, night sweats, weight loss, malaise, lethargy, and fatigue are not common unless patients have extensive lung disease.64 Patients with smear-positive sputum are more likely to have fever and hemoptysis.80 Assessment of symptoms is complicated in patients with preexisting lung disease.25 Symptoms usually improve with successful therapy.

MAC may also cause hypersensitivity pneumonitis. The organism was isolated from water in hot tubs used by five patients who acquired a syndrome consistent with hypersensitivity pneumonitis and recovered by avoiding further hot tub exposure.81 Other investigators have reported similar cases.8184

Patients with underlying lung disease and MAC infection often have cavities apparent on the chest radiograph.36,60,68 It has been suggested that MAC-related cavities tend to be thinner with less surrounding parenchymal opacification and more contiguous, but less distal bronchogenic, spread of opacification than in tuberculosis.8 In older women without underlying lung disease, MAC primarily involves the lingula and right middle lobe. Bronchiectasis is often evident. Often reticular changes, a single nodule, or multiple small nodules are present. If pleural thickening occurs, it usually develops adjacent to parenchymal abnormalities. Pleural effusions are not common in MAC.

HRCT scanning is more sensitive than chest radiographs for detecting the abnormalities associated with MAC lung disease.79,8587 Several studies8593 of the HRCT findings in MAC lung disease have been published. The presence of bronchiectasis and multiple small nodules are predictive of MAC lung disease, especially when they are adjacent to each other.79 In a study,89 one quarter of patients with typical changes of fibronodular bronchiectasis produced sputum that grew MAC on culture. Infection with MAC was documented in one half of patients with fibronodular bronchiectasis if bronchoscopy with BAL and transbronchial biopsy were performed.8889 Data from the HRCT studies8687,90 indicate that approximately one half of patients have pleural thickening or adhesions, usually adjacent to the pulmonary parenchymal abnormalities. Other reported abnormalities include atelectasis, consolidation, “tree in bud,” and “ground-glass” opacities. Gas trapping occurs in most patients with MAC lung disease.86,9092 Studies9394 comparing the CT findings with those of tuberculosis found that bronchiectasis is more common in MAC lung disease. Serial CT scanning in MAC lung disease has shown that bronchiectasis tends to become more severe and nodules spread to other segments over time.87,95 The development of consolidation and ground-glass opacities is preceded by the appearance of nodules. Some small nodules will disappear with successful treatment.95

Upper lobe fibrocavitary changes have been well described in patients with MAC lung disease.6062,64,6869,73,7980 Patients with MAC lung disease who have evidence of cavitary lung disease on CT scan are more likely to have smear-positive sputum than.80,94

Unlike M tuberculosis, the NTM can grow at room temperature.66 Runyon and Timpe35 found that the NTM have little, if any, pathogenicity for guinea pigs, but group 1 (M kansasii) and group 3 (MAC) organisms are pathogenic for mice.,35 The NTM demonstrate increased catalase activity and niacin negativity (compared to M tuberculosis).,66 The cell wall of MAC is trilaminar with a basal peptidoglycan layer, an intermediate layer that is transparent as viewed by electron microscopy, and an outer layer that is poorly penetrated by hydrophilic medications.96The relative resistance to antimycobacterials is presumably due to the lipophilicity of the cell wall.97

The 1997 ATS statement on the diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by NTM recommended that a minimum of three sputum specimens or other respiratory specimens be stained and cultured in symptomatic patients presenting with infiltrative, nodular, or cavitary lung disease.8 The rationale for the requirement for multiple positive culture results is that MAC is present in tap water, even in hospitals, and false-positive culture results may occur.33,4849

Techniques used for testing for M tuberculosis are satisfactory for staining and culturing for NTM, including MAC.8 Patients with bronchiectasis may also have infection with other bacteria, including Pseudomonas or fungi. Care must be taken to prevent the overgrowth of these organisms in culture. MAC can be rapidly identified with commercial DNA probes. Clinical trials have not shown susceptibility testing to antituberculosis medications to be useful. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) guidelines for susceptibility testing of mycobacteria, Nocardia, and other aerobic Actinomycetes, published in 2000, recommended that clarithromycin susceptibility testing be done for respiratory MAC isolates from patients with pulmonary disease.98The rationale for this recommendation is that a macrolide (clarithromycin) is the only medication that has demonstrated a correlation between clinical response and the results of in vitro susceptibility testing in the setting of a controlled clinical trial.99 The 2000 NCCLS guidelines differ from the 1997 ATS guidelines that recommended clarithromycin susceptibility testing only on isolates from patients who had failed therapy.8,98 The NCCLS guidelines also recommend that clarithromycin susceptibility testing should be done on respiratory isolates from patients receiving prior macrolide therapy and on respiratory isolates from patients who relapse while receiving macrolide therapy.100 The 1997 ATS guidelines for management of M avium lung disease are summarized in Table 2 .,8

Susceptibility testing should be repeated if the patient with chronic pulmonary disease fails to improve and still has a positive culture result after 6 months of treatment.100Clarithromycin resistance is primarily due to 23 S ribosomal RNA gene mutations.101

A single strain of MAC tends to persist in patients with advanced fibrocavitary disease. Patients with fibronodular bronchiectasis may grow different strains over time, suggesting a susceptibility to the organism that allows reinfection after it has been eradicated.102

Most patients in the earlier reports were male and had upper lobe cavitary disease. Patients with MAC lung disease tended to be older than patients with M tuberculosis or M kansasii, had a history of tobacco or alcohol consumption, and had underlying lung disease.6869,73 In the more recent reports, 2 most patients with fibronodular bronchiectasis were female and elderly. A Japanese study103 suggested that being thin was a risk factor for progression of disease in patients with fibronodular bronchiectasis.

Individuals carrying a cystic fibrosis or an abnormal α1-antiprotease gene appear to be predisposed to the development of MAC lung disease.104A recent American multicenter study105 found that NTM could be cultured from the sputum of 13% of patients with cystic fibrosis > 10 years old. The two most common NTM species were MAC and M abscessus, accounting for 72% and 16% of the NTM isolates, respectively. The patients whose sputum grew NTM tended to be older, had higher FEV1 values, lower body mass indexes, and were more likely to harbor Staphylococcus aureus and less likely to harbor Pseudomonas aeruginosa than patients with mycobacterial culture-negative sputum. It is not clear whether the association with these bacteria and likelihood of harboring NTM reflects that patients who harbor S aureus have less severe lung disease than those with P aeruginosa, or whether these bacteria modify conditions that influence NTM.,105Serial HRCT scans indicated that patients with cystic fibrosis and NTM were more likely to experience progressive pulmonary parenchymal changes over the subsequent 15 months.106Patients with thoracic disorders including pectus excavatum and kyphoscoliosis are also at greater risk of acquiring MAC lung disease.107108

In a murine model, mutations in natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP1) lead to overwhelming mycobacterial infection, but a study109in elderly women did not find evidence for a genetic NRAMP1 defect. Two Japanese families affected by MAC lung disease were studied to determine if host factors or virulence of the MAC strain were responsible for infection.110 The investigators did not find evidence that an abnormal NRAMP1 gene was causative in either family. Nor did it appear that a particularly virulent strain was responsible, since the infecting strain was different in different family members.110A recently published retrospective review111 found that patients with MAC lung disease were more likely to have sinusitis, had higher IgA levels, and a higher percentage of sputum neutrophils than patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

An analysis of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens in patients with MAC lung disease found that the A-26 antigen was more common in patients than in controls.112In an earlier study, the frequency of haplotype A2-B12 was reported to be significantly higher than expected in patients with MAC lung disease.113 Other investigative groups have not confirmed the associations between these MHC antigens and MAC lung disease.

Immunology of MAC Lung Disease

Since the organism is ubiquitous, it is fortunate that MAC is not as virulent as M tuberculosis and normal host defenses are effective.65 Unlike tuberculosis, most animals are resistant to MAC infection unless host defenses are iatrogenically altered. Certain strains can infect chickens, but these are different than those isolated from humans.65 Skin-testing studies indicate that many people are exposed and sensitized to MAC, yet only a minority acquire disease.59

Patients with lymphoreticular malignancies and patients with AIDS may acquire disseminated MAC, usually when the CD4+ count is < 50/μL.57,114 Since patients with AIDS have a constellation of T-cell immune defects, it is unclear which are responsible for the susceptibility to MAC.24 Stimulated CD4+ T-lymphocytes produce interferon (IFN)-γ, a glycoprotein, and other cytokines. Since the mid 1990s, a number of families have been described with members who have IFN-γ receptor defects and are predisposed to intracellular pathogens including MAC and other mycobacteria.,115121

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IFN-γ are both important in the defense against mycobacterial disease.122 In response to the phagocytosis of mycobacteria, macrophages release interleukin (IL)-12 and IL-18, stimulating production of IFN-γ by T- and null killer-lymphocytes.114,118,121122 IL-12 acts synergistically with rifabutin or clarithromycin to promote the clearance of MAC infection in mice.123IL-12 and IFN-γ act on lymphocytes and macrophages to stimulate the production of IL-2, TNF-α, other cytokines including granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor, and reactive oxidative intermediates such as superoxide and nitric oxide that participate in the host defense against mycobacteria.124 IFN-γ decreases phagosomal pH and increases the intracellular concentrations of macrolides and fluoroquinolones.118 IFN-γ increases surface display of the MHC antigens and Fc receptors and activates kinases that, in turn, activate transcription factors.125 The specific role for each of these IFN-γ–stimulated actions on the regulation of mycobacterial growth is not yet clear.121 At least one of these IFN-γ–induced transcriptional factors has been shown to play an important role in mycobacterial immunity.125 Animal studies112,119 confirm the central role of IFN-γ in the host defense against mycobacteria. Subcutaneous and aerosolized IFN-γ has been used experimentally in the treatment of disseminated and pulmonary NTM infection and in patients with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.121,126127

TNF-α also appears to play an important role in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Mice that are TNF-α receptor deficient are highly susceptible to mycobacterial infection. Among its contributions to host defense, TNF-α concentrates antimycobacterials in macrophages.128In a murine model, it enhanced the antibacterial activity of clofazimine against MAC.129 Overproduction of TNF-α is believed to have systemic effects including fever production, weight loss, and tissue necrosis.121

Vankayalapati and colleagues24 compared the effects of MAC antigen on peripheral blood monocytes from patients with MAC lung disease to those from healthy control subjects with a positive delayed hypersensitivity skin response to MAC sensitin. The monocytes from patients with MAC lung disease produced more IL-10, which is immunosuppressive, but less IL-12, IFN-γ, and TNF-α in response to incubation with MAC antigen.24 A subsequent small study130 reported lower levels of IFN-γ in patients with MAC lung disease that did not increase with successful therapy. It is attractive to speculate that abnormal production of cytokines and ILs may contribute to the predisposition to MAC lung disease.

Treatment Trials in MAC Lung Disease

Trials of antituberculosis medications were begun once MAC was recognized to be a pathogen. A PubMed search was undertaken in July 2002 to identify published reports of MAC lung disease therapy. Key terms included M avium, M intracellulare, MAC, M avium-intracellulare, and NTM. The terms were combined with therapy, treatment, clarithromycin, azithromycin, rifabutin, rifampin, ethambutol, isoniazid, streptomycin, amikacin, kanamycin, capreomycin, viomycin, clofazimine, pyrazinamide, ethionamide, cycloserine, para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS), ciprofloxacin, fluoroquinolones, and surgery. The bibliographies of the identified articles were also searched.

A total of 38 treatment reports of MAC lung disease were identified with this search strategy. There were seven reports6364,6668,131132 published between 1957 and 1971 (Table 3 ). The drugs primarily used in these reports were isoniazid, PAS, and streptomycin. Rifampin and ethambutol were used in most of the 19 treatment studies published between 1974 and 1993 and in the British Thoracic Society (BTS) trial (Table 4 ).,2,69,7374,133147 Clarithromycin or azithromycin were included in the 12 studies published after 1993 (Table 5 ).159 In comparison to tuberculosis, MAC is relatively resistant to chemotherapy. It is difficult to compare the different published reports since patients were treated over a period of 5 decades and patient populations differed between the reports. Criteria for diagnosis, age and gender mix, extent of lung disease, type and severity of comorbidity, and the proportion of retreated patients differed between the studies.141 Some were treated as inpatients, allowing for strict adherence to prescribed therapy and minimizing the number of patients abandoning therapy before the study was completed, and others were treated out of hospital. Criteria for treatment success also differed between the reports; some included patients who were clinically and/or radiologically stable as successfully treated cases, some included cases that required adjunctive surgery as treatment successes, whereas the more recently reported studies used sputum conversion to negative with medication therapy as the criterion of success. From the 1950s until the mid-1960s, the available medications included isoniazid, PAS, ethionamide, cycloserine, streptomycin, kanamycin, viomycin, and sulfisoxasole. Crow and colleagues64 reported their experience with 64 patients with MAC lung disease hospitalized between 1950 and 1955; 56 patients received a regimen that included isoniazid and streptomycin for periods ranging from 3 to 57 months but averaged 17 months. Sputum converted to negative in 17 patients (30%) with chemotherapy alone, 7 patients required surgery, and 32 patients did not convert to negative.64 The results of the other six reports before the availability of ethambutol and rifampin were similar (Table 3).,63,6668,131132

Lung resections were performed in patients in whom medication therapy was unsuccessful and had adequate pulmonary reserve. Surgery has been reported to be effective therapy for MAC lung disease and to achieve sputum conversion in patients in whom medication therapy had failed previously. Postoperative morbidity and complications, including bronchopleural fistula, hemorrhage, and empyema, are common in these patients.2630 To date, no controlled surgical trials for MAC lung disease have been published.

Results with antituberculosis medications improved after the introduction of ethambutol and rifampin in the mid 1960s and early 1970s, respectively. The reports of regimens that included ethambutol and/or rifampin are summarized in Table 4. Most of the reports were from the United States, but some were published elsewhere, including Japan,133,143,145 Canada,73 Scandinavia,138139,144 and the United Kingdom.137 Success rates varied between studies, but outcomes in the different countries were similar.

The reported rates of treatment success have ranged from 20 to 90% in individual studies67,140(Tables 3, 4). Much of this variability depended on whether an intention-to-treat strategy was used and whether relapses were included in the calculation of treatment success. If patients who were unable or unwilling to complete treatment, those requiring surgery, those who died, and those with relapse during an adequate follow-up period are included, the cure rate was approximately 40%. One group of investigators140 reported a conversion-to-negative rate of 91% (42 of 46 patients) with a regimen of rifampin, isoniazid, ethambutol, and 6 months of streptomycin; but if the patients who dropped out of the treatment protocol and relapses are included, the success rate was only 42%. Mortality was high in many of the reported series since a large number of the patients were elderly and had serious comorbid conditions.

Results were better with regimens that contained more medications but only for the patients who were able to tolerate the multidrug regimens. Serious toxicity limited the number of medications, dose, and duration of therapy in these regimens. The study by Horsburgh and colleagues142 was exceptional; all 75 inpatients completed therapy with an average of more than five medications, and the sputum converted to negative in 50 of them. They were able to prevent patients dropping out of the study despite 46% discontinuing one or more drugs because of toxicity.142

Some have suggested that adjusting therapy to sensitivity testing results improves outcome in MAC lung disease, but others have not been able to show a benefit.142,144 Its relative resistance to individual medications but the possible existence of a synergistic effect of combined therapy on MAC may explain the lack of a correlation between sensitivity testing and clinical outcome results.160161 Despite the lack of any controlled trials of antituberculous therapy for MAC lung disease at that time, Tsukumura143 argued that the increased “minimum inhibitory concentrations” after treatment and the response of the more sensitive organisms to antimicrobial therapy provided evidence of a beneficial effect from treatment.

Apart from the recently published BTS trial, none of the other trials were controlled.146147 The BTS trial was started in 1987 and compared 24 months of treatment with rifampin and ethambutol to rifampin, ethambutol, and isoniazid. It found that the patients treated with three drugs had a slightly better conversion-to-negative rate but a higher mortality rate. Five years after treatment, only 23 of the 75 patients (31%) with MAC lung disease were alive and in remission.147 Unfortunately, the data are no longer relevant since the introduction of macrolide-based regimens.

The newer macrolides, clarithromycin and azithromycin, are concentrated in alveolar macrophages and have good activity against MAC, an intracellular organism.162166 Clarithromycin when administered alone and in combination with a rifamycin, especially rifabutin, was effective both for prophylaxis and treatment of disseminated MAC in patients with AIDS.167169 Trials of clarithromycin, and more recently azithromycin, administered alone and in combination with other medications, were also undertaken in patients with MAC lung disease without HIV infection (Table 5).,148159 Clarithromycin demonstrated good activity against MAC, but resistance developed when it was administered alone.148 Emergence of resistance to both clarithromycin and azithromycin may be prevented by the addition of ethambutol or a rifamycin.170 Most published trials of macrolide-based treatment regimens have included a rifamycin and at least one other antibiotic, usually ethambutol. Streptomycin has also been administered during the first 2 months in many of the macrolide-based trials.8

Unfortunately, elderly patients with MAC lung disease frequently experience side effects from the long-term use of clarithromycin.171Taste perversion, GI upset, hearing problems, allergic reactions, and hepatitis may prevent patients from completing therapy.172 Azithromycin appears to be as effective as clarithromycin and may be better tolerated.158 It may also have less pharmacokinetic interaction with rifabutin than clarithromycin.173Rifabutin is more active than rifampin against MAC but causes troubling immune side effects, including polyarthralgias, anterior uveitis, and leukopenia.174176 Both rifabutin and rifampin lower serum levels of clarithromycin.177 Rifampin interferes with the metabolism of a number of drugs metabolized through the hepatic P 450 3A4 cytochrome system. Since most patients with MAC lung disease are elderly, many have other health problems and require medications that may be affected by rifampin. The published macrolide-based trials are summarized in Table 5. More than 80% of the patients in two French trials,154155 who could tolerate relatively high doses of clarithromycin converted to negative. Unfortunately, nearly 20% of the patients were unable to tolerate treatment. Similar dropout and conversion-to-negative rates were seen in the other trials149,152,156,158 with clarithromycin. The risk of side effects is likely related to serum drug levels.178 Early results suggest that azithromycin may be better tolerated than clarithromycin and that it is as effective against MAC.151,153,158 Another advantage of azithromycin is that a thrice-weekly regimen is feasible.151,153 Unfortunately, none of the macrolide-based trials were controlled because of the small numbers of patients with MAC lung disease in any one center. If one includes treatment dropouts and relapses, the cure rate with the macrolide-containing regimens is approximately 56% (Table 5), comparing favorably with the earlier antituberculosis regimens (Tables 3, 4), but a treatment failure rate approaching 45% is unsatisfactory. The treatment success rate can probably be improved by 15 to 20% by substituting drugs that are better tolerated, eg, azithromycin for clarithromycin. However, some patients will remain resistant to antimicrobial therapy, and alternate treatments will require consideration.

Some of the newer fluoroquinolones and linezolid demonstrate activity against MAC and other mycobacteria in in vitro testing. Their role in treatment remains to be determined since none of these drugs have undergone clinical testing.179

The recognition that these patients have a failure of the IFN-γ pathways has led to some preliminary studies of cytokine therapy in MAC lung disease, and preliminary results127,180suggest that IFN-γ may have a role in the treatment of MAC. Animal trials and in vitro studies181 with human monocyte-derived macrophages indicate that IFN-γ activates macrophage antimicrobial activity. Trials126127 in patients with MAC lung disease who are refractory to therapy and in patients without HIV infection with disseminated MAC have been undertaken. Although the work on the immune response to MAC is preliminary, the findings raise the possibility that cytokine therapy may have a role in treatment in the future.

MAC is an important pulmonary pathogen. It can complicate preexisting lung diseases and can cause lung disease in previously healthy people, usually thin, elderly women. Preliminary data suggest an important role for the IFN-γ pathways in the host defense against MAC and other mycobacteria. The newer macrolides, clarithromycin and azithromycin, have improved the results of therapy for MAC lung disease, but the failure rate remains high and work is needed to improve the outcome in MAC lung disease. Investigators should collaborate to develop a multicenter trial group to facilitate studies of MAC lung disease and its treatment that are properly powered and controlled.

Abbreviations: ATS = American Thoracic Society; BTS = British Thoracic Society; HRCT = high-resolution CT; IFN = interferon; IL = interleukin; MAC = Mycobacterium avium complex; MHC = major histocompatability complex; NCCLS = National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards; NRAMP1 = natural resistance-associated macrophage protein; NTM = nontuberculous mycobacteria; PAS = para-aminosalicylic acid; TNF = tumor necrosis factor

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Salient Clinical Features of M avium Lung Disease
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. 1997 ATS Recommendations for Treatment of M avium Pulmonary Disease*
* 

Treatment should be reserved for patients with a clinical picture consistent with M avium lung disease and confirmed infection with a minimum of three culture-positive sputum specimens or two culture-positive specimens if one is smear positive. Treatment should include a combination of a macrolide, either clarithromycin or azithromycin, a rifamycin, either rifabutin or rifampin, and ethambutol. These medications should be continued for a year after sputum has converted to negative. Streptomycin should also be administered during the first 8 weeks of medication therapy.

 

Our recommendation.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 3. Regimens Used Prior to the Introduction of Ethambutol or Rifampin, 1957–1971*
* 

NA = not available; CN = conversion to negative; H = isoniazid; PAS + 2 = PAS and at least two other antibiotics, depending on the susceptibility studies; S = streptomycin; S + = streptomycin plus other antibiotics.

 

One of the six who responded.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 4. Regimens That Included Ethambutol and/or Rifampin Published Between 1974 and 2001*
* 

See Table 3 for expansion of abbreviations. E = ethambutol; R + = rifampin plus other antibiotics; RE = rifampin and ethambutol; HRE = isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol; HRE + = isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol plus other antibiotics; A = amikalin; Cm = capreomycin; Cs = cycloserine; Eth = ethionamide.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 5. Macrolide-Containing Regimens in the Treatment of MAC Lung Disease
* 

See Tables 3, 4 for expansion of abbreviations. C = clarithromycin; Rf = rifampicin; Rb = rifabutin; A 600 = azithromycin, 600 mg/d; M = minocycline; Clo = clofazimine; TIW = three times a week; Ofl = ofloxacin or levofloxacin.

The authors thank Ms. L.G. Field for editorial review.

Edwards, LB, Palmer, CE (1959) Isolation of “atypical” mycobacteria from healthy persons.Am Rev Respir Dis80,747-749. [PubMed]
 
Prince, DS, Peterson, DD, Steiner, RM, et al Infection withMycobacterium avium complexin patients without predisposing conditions.N Engl J Med1989;321,863-868. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Tsukumura, M Background factors for casual isolation ofMycobacterium intracellularefrom sputum of patients with tuberculosis.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,679-683. [PubMed]
 
Tsukumura, M Clinical significance of casual isolation of acid-fast organisms from sputum of tuberculous patients.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,1429-1430. [PubMed]
 
Horsburgh, CJ, Jr, Selik, RM The epidemiology of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Am Rev Respir Dis1989;139,4-7. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hawkins, CC, Gold, WM, Whimbey, E, et al Mycobacterium avium-complexinfections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.Ann Intern Med1986;105,184-188. [PubMed]
 
Nightingale, SD, Byrd, LT, Southern, PM, et al Incidence ofMycobacterium avium-intracellularein human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.J Infect Dis1992;165,1082-1085. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
American Thoracic Society. Diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;156,S1-S25. [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE Mycobacteria as pathogens of respiratory infection.Infect Dis North Am1998;12,593-611. [CrossRef]
 
Hocqueloux, L, Lesprit, P, Herrmann, JL, et al PulmonaryMycobacterium avium complexdisease without dissemination in HIV-infected patients.Chest1998;113,542-548. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lincoln, EM, Gilbert, LA Disease in children due to mycobacteria other thanMycobacterium tuberculosis.Am Rev Respir Dis1972;105,683-714. [PubMed]
 
O’Brien, RJ, Geiter, LJ, Snider, DE, Jr The epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases in the United States.Am Rev Respir Dis1987;135,1007-1014. [PubMed]
 
Horsburgh, CR Epidemiology of human disease caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Can J Infect Dis1994;5,5B-9B
 
Elwood, RK, Opazo, AM, Lentini, V, et al Incidence of pulmonary disease caused by mycobacteria other than tuberculosis in British Columbia.Can Respir J2002;9,319-323. [PubMed]
 
Kennedy, MP, O’Connor, TM, Ryan, C, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria: incidence in Southwest Ireland from 1987 to 2000.Respir Med2003;97,257-263. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Marras, TK, Daley, CL Epidemiology of human pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria nontuberculous.Clin Chest Med2002;23,553-567. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Barker, AF Bronchiectasis.N Engl J Med2002;346,1383-1393. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Angrill, J, Agusti, C, Torres, A Bronchiectasis.Curr Opin Infect Dis2001;14,193-197. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kilby, JM, Gilligan, PH, Yankaskas, JR, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.Chest1992;102,70-75. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Oliver, A, Maiz, L, Canton, R, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis.Clin Infect Dis2001;32,1298-1303. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ahn, CH, Lowell, JR, Onstad, GD, et al A demographic study of disease due toMycobacterium kansasiiorM intracellulare-aviumin Texas.Chest1979;75,120-125. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Trnka, L, Dankova, D, Svandova, E Six years’ experience with the discontinuation of BCG vaccination: 4. Protective effect of BCG vaccination against theMycobacterium avium intracellulare complex.Tuberc Lung Dis1994;75,348-352. [CrossRef]
 
Romanus, V, Hallander, HO, Wahlen, P, et al Atypical mycobacteria in extrapulmonary disease among children: incidence in Sweden from 1969 to 1990, related to changing BCG-vaccination coverage.Tuber Lung Dis1995;76,300-310. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vankayalapati, R, Wizel, B, Samten, B, et al Cytokine profiles in immunocompetent persons infected withMycobacterium avium complex.J Infect Dis2001;183,478-484. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
American Thoracic Society. Diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.Am Rev Respir Dis1990;142,940-953. [PubMed]
 
Corpe, RF Surgical management of pulmonary disease due toMycobacterium avium-intracellulare.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1064-1067. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Moran, JF, Alexander, LG, Staub, EW, et al Long-term results of pulmonary resection for atypical mycobacterial disease.Ann Thorac Surg1983;35,597-604. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nelson, KG, Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, et al Results of operation inMycobacterium avium-intracellularelung disease.Ann Thorac Surg1998;66,325-330. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Pomerantz, M, Madsen, L, Goble, M, et al Surgical management of resistantMycobacterial tuberculosisand other mycobacterial pulmonary infections.Ann Thorac Surg1991;52,1108-1112. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shiriaishi, Y, Nakajima, Y, Takasuna, K, et al Surgery forMycobacterium avium complexlung disease in the clarithromycin era.Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2002;21,314-318. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wolinsky, E Nontuberculous mycobacteria and associated diseases.Am Rev Respir Dis1979;119,107-159
 
Jenkins, PA Nontuberculous mycobacteria and disease.Eur J Respir Dis1981;62,69-71. [PubMed]
 
Pinner, M Atypical acid-fast microorganisms.Am Rev Tuberc1935;32,424-439
 
Feldman, WH, Davies, R, Moses, HE, et al An unusual mycobacterium isolated from sputum of a man suffering from pulmonary disease of long duration.Am Rev Tuberc1943;48,82-93
 
Timpe, A, Runyon, EH The relationship of “atypical” acid-fast bacteria to human disease: a preliminary report.J Lab Clin Med1954;44,202-209. [PubMed]
 
Lewis, AG, Jr, Dunbar, FP, Lasche, EM, et al Chronic pulmonary disease due to atypical mycobacterial infections.Am Rev Respir Dis1959;80,188-199. [PubMed]
 
Reznikov, M, Leggo, JH Investigation by seroagglutination of strains of theMycobacterium intracellulare-M scrofulaceumgroup from house dusts and sputum in southeastern Queensland.Am Rev Respir Dis1971;104,951-953. [PubMed]
 
Bhatia, SVN A study of mycobacterial species isolated from patients with chronic respiratory disease.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,378-381. [PubMed]
 
Robakiewicz, M, Grzybowski, S Epidemiologic aspects of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and of tuberculosis in British Columbia.Am Rev Respir Dis1974;109,613-620. [PubMed]
 
Goslee, S, Wolinsky, E Water as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria.Am Rev Respir Dis1976;113,287-292. [PubMed]
 
Meissner, G, Anz, W Sources ofMycobacterium avium complexresulting in human diseases.Am Rev Respir Dis1977;116,1057-1064. [PubMed]
 
Schaeffer, WB Incidence of the serotypes ofMycobacterium aviumand atypical mycobacteria in human and animal diseases.Am Rev Respir Dis1968;97,18-23. [PubMed]
 
Sriyabhaya, N, Wongwatana, S Pulmonary infection caused by atypical mycobacteria in Thailand.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1085-1089. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kleeberg, HH Epidemiology of mycobacteria other than tubercle bacilli in South Africa.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1008-1012. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gorse, GJ, Fairshter, RD, Friedly, G, et al Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: experience in a Southern California hospital.Arch Intern Med1983;143,225-228. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Eaton, T, Falkinham, JO, III, von Reyn, CF Recovery ofMycobacterium aviumfrom cigarettes.J Clin Microbiol1995;33,2757-2758. [PubMed]
 
Gruft, H, Falkinham, JO, III, Parker, BC Recent experience in the epidemiology of disease caused by atypical mycobacteria.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,990-996. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
von Reyn, CF, Maslow, JN, Barber, TW, et al Persistent colonization of potable water as a source ofMycobacterium aviuminfection in AIDS.Lancet1994;343,1137-1141. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
du Moulin, GC, Stottmeier, KD, Pelletier, PA, et al Concentration of.Mycobacterium aviumby hospital hot water systems.JAMA1988;260,1599-1601. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wendt, SL, George, KL, Parker, BC, et al Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria: III. Isolation of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria from aerosols.Am Rev Respir Dis1980;122,259-263. [PubMed]
 
Parker, BC, Ford, MA, Gruft, H, et al Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria: IV. Preferential aerosolization of mycobacterium intracellulare from natural waters.Am Rev Respir Dis1983;128,652-656. [PubMed]
 
O’Brien, DP, Currie, BJ, Krause, VL, et al Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in Northern Australia: a case series and review of the literature.Clin Infect Dis2000;31,958-968. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hemphill, RA, Morton, JH “Battey” disease in Dublin, Georgia.Am Rev Respir Dis1969;100,410-411. [PubMed]
 
Woods, GL, Washington, JA, II Mycobacteria other thanMycobacterium tuberculosis: review of microbiologic and clinical aspects.Rev Infect Dis1987;9,275-294. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Maesaki, S, Kohno, S, Koga, H, et al A clinical comparison betweenMycobacterium aviumandMycobacterium intracellulareinfections.Chest1993;104,1408-1411. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Edwards, LB, Palmer, CE, Edwards, PQ Further studies of geographic variation in naturally acquired tuberculin sensitivity.Bull World Health Organ1955;22,63-83
 
Edwards, LB, Comstock, GW, Palmer, CE Contributions of Northern populations to the understanding of tuberculin sensitivity.Arch Environ Health1968;17,507-516. [PubMed]
 
Palmer, CE, Edwards, PQ Sensitivity of human populations to human and avian tuberculins.Bull World Health Organ1955;22,85-99
 
Edwards, LB, Acquaviva, FA, Livesay, VT, et al Atlas of sensitivity to tuberculin, PPD-B, and histoplasmin in US.Am Rev Respir Dis1969;99(suppl),1-131
 
Christensen, EE, Dietz, GW, Ahn, CH, et al Pulmonary manifestations ofMycobacterium intracellularis.AJR Am J Roentgenol1979;133,59-66. [PubMed]
 
Christensen, EE, Dietz, GW, Ahn, CH, et al Initial roentgenographic manifestations of pulmonaryMycobacterium tuberculosis,M kansasii, and M intracellularisinfectionsChest1981;80,132-136. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ahn, CH, McLarty, JW, Ahn, SS, et al Diagnostic criteria for pulmonary disease caused byMycobacterium kansasiiandMycobacterium intracellulare.Am Rev Respir Dis1982;125,388-391. [PubMed]
 
Phillips, S, Larkin, JC, Jr Atypical pulmonary tuberculosis caused by unclassified mycobacteria.Ann Intern Med1964;60,401-408. [PubMed]
 
Crow, HE, King, CT, Smith, CE, et al A limited clinical, pathologic, and epidemiologic study of patients with pulmonary lesions associated with atypical acid-fast bacilli in the sputum.Am Rev Respir Dis1957;75,199-222
 
Wijsmuller, G, Erickson, P The reaction to PPD-Battey: a new look.Am Rev Respir Dis1974;109,29-40. [PubMed]
 
Lewis, AG, Jr, Lasche, EM, Armstrong, AL, et al A clinical study of the chronic lung disease due to nonphotochromogenic acid-fast bacilli.Ann Intern Med1960;53,273-285. [PubMed]
 
Warring, FC, Jr Mycobacteria in a New England hospital: a study of mycobacterial species occurring in the sputum of patients with chronic pulmonary disease.Am Rev Respir Dis1968;98,965-977. [PubMed]
 
Bates, JH A study of pulmonary disease associated with mycobacteria other thanMycobacterium tuberculosis: clinical characteristics.Am Rev Respir Dis1967;96,1151-1156. [PubMed]
 
Rosenzweig, DY Pulmonary mycobacterial infections due toMycobacterium intracellulare-avium complex: clinical features and course in 100 consecutive cases.Chest1979;75,115-119. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Stottmeier, KD, Tose, L, Jones, C Clinical and bacteriologic evaluation of pulmonary mycobacterioses in the greater Boston area.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,1227-1230. [PubMed]
 
Ahn, CH, Lowell, JR, Onstad, GD, et al A demographic study of disease due toMycobacterium kansasiiorM intracellulare-aviumin Texas.Chest1979;75,120-125. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Good, RC, Snider, DE Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria in the United States, 1980.J Infect Dis1982;146,829-833. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Contreras, MA, Cheung, OT, Sanders, DE, et al Pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria.Am Rev Respir Dis1988;137,149-152. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Reich, JM, Johnson, RE Mycobacterium avium complexpulmonary disease: incidence, presentation, and response to therapy in a community setting.Am Rev Respir Dis1991;143,1381-1385. [PubMed]
 
Cox, JN, Brenner, ER, Bryan, CS Changing patterns of mycobacterial disease at a teaching community hospital.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol1994;15,513-515. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Chapman, JS The atypical mycobacteria.Am Rev Respir Dis1982;125,119-124. [PubMed]
 
Epstein, MD, Aranda, CP, Bonk, S, et al The significance ofMycobacterium avium complexcultivation in the sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.Chest1997;111,142-147. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Beck, F Pulmonary disease due to atypical tubercle bacilli.Am Rev Respir Dis1959;80,738-743. [PubMed]
 
Kubo, K, Yamazaki, Y, Hachiya, T, et al Mycobacterium avium-intracellularepulmonary infection in patients without known predisposing pulmonary disease.Lung1998;176,381-391. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Obayashi, Y, Fujita, J, Suemitsu, I, et al Clinical features of non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease: comparisons between smear-positive and smear-negative cases, and betweenMycobacterium aviumandMycobacterium intracellulare.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis1998;2,597-602. [PubMed]
 
Embril, J, Warren, P, Yakrus, M, et al Pulmonary illness associated with exposure toMycobacterium avium complexin hot tub water: hypersensitivity pneumonitis or infection?Chest1997;111,813-816. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 27–2000.N Engl J Med2000;343,642-649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kahana, LM, Kay, JM, Yakrus, MA, et al Mycobacterium avium complexinfection in an immunocompetent young adult related to hot tub exposure.Chest1997;111,242-245. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Cappelluti, E, Fraire, AE, Schaefer, OP A case of “hot tub lung” due toMycobacterium avium complexin an immunocompetent host.Arch Intern Med2003;163,845-848. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Swensen, SJ, Hartman, TE, Williams, DE Computed tomographic diagnosis ofMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complexin patients with bronchiectasis.Chest1994;105,49-52. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wittram, C, Weisbrod, GL Mycobacterium avium complexlung disease in immunocompetent patients: radiography-CT correlation.Br J Radiol2002;75,340-344. [PubMed]
 
Tanaka, D, Niwatsukino, H, Oyama, T, et al Progressing features of atypical mycobacterial infection in the lung on conventional and high resolution CT (HRCT) images.Radiat Med2001;19,237-245. [PubMed]
 
Olivier, KN Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease.Curr Opin Pulm Med1998;4,148-153. [PubMed]
 
Tanaka, E, Amitani, R, Niimi, A, et al Yield of computed tomography and bronchoscopy for the diagnosis ofMycobacterium avium complexpulmonary disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;155,2041-2046. [PubMed]
 
Reich, JM, Johnson, RE Mycobacterium avium complexpulmonary disease presenting as an isolated lingular or middle lobe pattern.Chest1992;101,1605-1609. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Maycher, B, O’Connor, R, Long, R Computed tomographic abnormalities inMycobacterium avium complexlung disease include the mosaic pattern of reduced lung attenuation.Can Assoc Radiol J2000;51,93-102. [PubMed]
 
Kubo, K, Yamakazi, Y, Masubuchi, T, et al Pulmonary infection withMycobacterium avium-intracellulareleads to air trapping distal to the small airways.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1998;158,979-984. [PubMed]
 
Primack, SL, Logan, PM, Hartman, TE, et al Pulmonary tuberculosis andMycobacterium avium-intracellulare: a comparison of CT findings.Radiology1995;194,413-417. [PubMed]
 
Lynch, DA, Simone, PM, Fox, MA, et al CT features of pulmonaryMycobacterium avium complexinfection.J Comput Assist Tomogr1995;19,353-360. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Obayashi, Y, Fujita, J, Suemitsu, I, et al Successive follow-up of chest computed tomography in patients withMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex.Respir Med1999;93,11-15. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bates, JH Mycobacterium aviumdisease: progress at last.Am Rev Respir Dis1986;153,1737-1738
 
Rastogi, N, Frehel, C, Ryter, A, et al Multiple drug resistance inMycobacterium avium: is the wall architecture responsible for the exclusion of antimicrobial agents?Antimicrob Agents Chemother1981;20,666-677. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Susceptibility testing of mycobacteria, Nocardia, and other aerobic actinomycetes. 2d. Tentative standard M24–T2. 2000; National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Wayne, PA:.
 
Chaisson, RE, Benson, CA, Dube, MP, et al Clarithromycin therapy for bacteremicMycobacterium avium complexdisease: a randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study in patients with AIDS: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 157 Study Team.Ann Intern Med1994;121,905-911. [PubMed]
 
Woods, GL Susceptibility for mycobacteria.Clin Infect Dis2000;31,1209-1215. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jamal, MA, Maeda, S, Nakata, N, et al Molecular basis of clarithromycin-resistance inMycobacterium avium intracellulare complex.Tuber Lung Dis2000;80,1-4. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Zhang, Y, Brown, BA, et al PolyclonalMycobacterium avium complexinfections in patients with nodular bronchiectasis.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1998;158,1235-1244. [PubMed]
 
Yamazaki, Y, Kubo, K, Takamizawa, A, et al Markers indicating deterioration of pulmonaryMycobacterium avium-intracellulareinfection.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1999;160,1851-1855. [PubMed]
 
DeGroote, MA, Huitt, G, Fulton, K, et al Retrospective analysis of aspiration risk and genetic predisposition in bronchiectasis patients with and without non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection [abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;;163 ,.:A763
 
Olivier, KN, Weber, DJ, Wallace, RJ, Jr, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria: I. Multicenter prevalence study in cystic fibrosis.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2003;167,828-834. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Olivier, KN, Weber, DJ, Lee, J-H, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria: II. Nested-cohort study of impact on cystic fibrosis lung disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2003;167,835-840. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Iseman, MD, Buschman, DL, Ackerson, LM Pectus excavatum and scoliosis: thoracic abnormalities associated with pulmonary disease caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Am Rev Respir Dis1991;144,914-916. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Guide, SV, Holland, SM Host susceptibility factors in mycobacterial infection: genetics and body morphotype.Infect Dis Clin North Am2002;16,163-186. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Huang, JH, Oefner, PJ, Adi, V, et al Analyses of the NRAMP1 and IFN-γR1 genes in women withMycobacterium avium-intracellularepulmonary disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1998;157,377-381. [PubMed]
 
Tanaka, E, Kimoto, T, Matsumoto, H, et al Familial pulmonaryMycobacterium avium complexdisease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;161,1643-1647. [PubMed]
 
Watanabe, K, Fujimura, M, Kasahara, K, et al Characteristics of pulmonaryMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex(MAC) infection in comparison with those of tuberculosis.Respir Med2003;97,654-659. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kubo, K, Yamazaki, Y, Hanaoka, M, et al Analysis of HLA antigens inMycobacterium avium-intracellulareinfection.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;161,1368-1371. [PubMed]
 
Chakraborty, AK, Damle, PB, Davidson, PT, et al Disease due toMycobacterium intracellulare: its possible association with human leukocyte antigens.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1060-1063. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM Nontuberculous mycobacteria.Am J Med Sci2001;321,49-55. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Newport, MJ, Huxley, CM, Huston, S, et al A mutation in the interferon-γ-receptor gene and susceptibility to mycobacterial infection.N Engl J Med1996;335,1941-1949. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jouanguy, E, Altare, F, Lamhamedi, S, et al Interferon-γ-receptor deficiency in an infant with fatal bacille Calmette-Guerin infection.N Engl J Med1996;335,1956-1961. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dorman, SE, Holland, SM Mutation in the signal-transducing chain of the interferon-γ receptor and susceptibility to mycobacterial infection.J Clin Invest1998;101,2364-2369. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM Immune deficiency presenting as mycobacterial infection.Clin Rev Immunol2001;20,121-137. [CrossRef]
 
Dorman, SE, Holland, SM Interferon-γ and interleukin-12 pathway defects and human disease.Cytokine Growth Factor Rev2000;11,321-333. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jouanguy, E, Lamhamedi-Cherradi, S, Lammas, D, et al A human IFNγR1 small deletion hotspot associated with dominant susceptibility to mycobacterial infection.Nat Genet1999;21,370-378. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM Immunotherapy of mycobacterial infections.Semin Respir Infect2001;16,47-59. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shirasuchi, H, Ellner, JJ Expression of IL-18 byMycobacterium avium-infected human monocytes: association withM aviumvirulence.Clin Exp Immunol2001;123,203-209. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Doherty, TM, Sher, A IL-12 promotes drug-induced clearance ofMycobacterium aviuminfection in mice.J Immunol1998;160,5428-5435. [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM, Dorman, SE, Kwon, A, et al Abnormal regulation of interferon-γ, interleukin-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α in human interferon-γ receptor 1 deficiency.J Infect Dis1998;178,1095-1104. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dupuis, S, Dargemont, C, Fieschi, C, et al Impairment of mycobacterial but not viral immunity by a germline human STAT1 mutation.Science2001;293,300-303. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM, Eisenstein, EM, Kuhns, DB, et al Treatment of refractory disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection with interferonγ: a preliminary report.N Engl J Med1994;330,1348-1355. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Chatte, G, Panteix, G, Perrin-Fayolle, M, et al Aerosolized interferon gamma forMycobacterium avium-complexdisease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1995;152,1094-1096. [PubMed]
 
Bermudez, LE, Inderlird, C, Young, LS Stimulation with cytokines enhances penetration of azithromycin in human macrophages.Antimicrob Agents Chemother1991;35,2625-2629. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gomez-Flores, R, Tucker, SD, Kansal, R, et al Enhancement of antibacterial activity of clofazimine againstMycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complexinfection induced by IFNγ is mediated by TNFα.J Antimicrob Chemother1997;39,189-197. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Safdar, A, White, DA, Stover, D, et al Profound interferonγ deficiency in patients with chronic pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis.Am J Med2002;113,756-759. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fischer, DA, Lester, W, Schaeffer, WB Infections with typical mycobacteria: five years’ experience at the National Jewish Hospital.Am Rev Respir Dis1968;98,29-34. [PubMed]
 
Yeagher, H, Jr, Raleigh, JW Pulmonary disease due toMycobacterium intracellulare.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,547-552. [PubMed]
 
Tsukumura, M, Shimoide, H, Segawa, J, et al Clinical feature of lung disease due toMycobacterium intracellulare.Kekkaku1974;49,139-145. [PubMed]
 
Dutt, AK, Stead, WW Long-term results of medical treatment inMycobacterium intracellulareinfection.Am J Med1979;67,449-453. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Seibert, AF, Bass, JB Four drug therapy of pulmonary disease due toMycobacterium-avium complex[abstract].Am Rev Respir Dis1979;119,A399
 
Davidson, PT, Khanijo, V, Goble, M, et al Treatment of disease due toMycobacterium intracellulare.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1052-1059. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hunter, AM, Campbell, IA, Jenkins, PA, et al Treatment of pulmonary infections caused by mycobacteria of theMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex.Thorax1981;36,326-329. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Engbaek, HC, Vergmann, B, Bentzon, MW Lung disease caused byMycobacterium avium/Mycobacterium intracellulare.Eur J Respir Dis1981;62,72-83. [PubMed]
 
Engbaek, HC, Vergmann, B, Bentzon, MW A prospective study of lung disease caused byMycobacterium avium/Mycobacterium intracellulare.Eur J Respir Dis1984;65,411-418. [PubMed]
 
Ahn, CH, Ahn, SS, Anderson, RA, et al A four-drug regimen for initial treatment of cavitary disease caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Am Rev Respir Dis1986;134,438-441. [PubMed]
 
Etzkorn, ET, Aldarondo, S, Mc Allister, CK, et al Medical therapy ofMycobacterium avium-intracellularepulmonary disease.Am Rev Respir Dis1986;134,442-445. [PubMed]
 
Horsburgh, CR, Mason, UG, III, Heifets, LB, et al Response to therapy of pulmonaryMycobacterium avium-intracellulareinfection correlates with results ofin vitrosusceptibility testing.Am Rev Respir Dis1987;135,418-421. [PubMed]
 
Tsukamura, M Evidence that antituberculous drugs are really effective in the treatment of pulmonary infection caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Am Rev Respir Dis1988;137,144-148. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Heurlin, N, Petrini, B Treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in patients without AIDS.Scand J Infect Dis1993;25,619-623. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Tsukamura, M, Ichiyama, S, Miyauchi, T Superiority of enviomycin or streptomycin over ethambutol in initial treatment of lung disease caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Chest1989;95,1056-1058. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Research committee of the British Thoracic Society. First randomized trial of treatments for pulmonary disease caused byM avium intracellulare, M malmoense, and M xenopiin HIV negative patients: rifampicin, ethambutol and isoniazid versus rifampicin and ethambutol.Thorax2001;56,167-172. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
The research committee of the BTS. Pulmonary disease caused byMycobacterium avium-intracellularein HIV-negative patients: five-year follow-up of patients receiving standardised treatment.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis2002;6,628-634. [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Brown, BA, Griffith, DE, et al Initial clarithromycin monotherapy forMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complexlung disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1994;149,1335-1341. [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Brown, BA, Griffith, DE, et al Clarithromycin regimens for pulmonaryMycobacterium avium complex.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1996;153,1766-1772. [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Girard, WM, et al Azithromycin activity againstMycobacterium avium complexlung disease in patients who were not infected with human immunodeficiency virus.Clin Infect Dis1996;23,983-989. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Murphy, DT, et al Initial (6-month) results of three-times-weekly azithromycin in treatment regimens forMycobacterium avium complexlung disease in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients.J Infect Dis1998;178,121-126. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Cegielski, P, et al Early results (at 6 months) with intermittent clarithromycin-including regimens for lung disease due toMycobacterium avium complex.Clin Infect Dis2000;30,288-292. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Girard, WM, et al Azithromycin-containing regimens for treatment ofMycobacterium avium complexlung disease.Clin Infect Dis2001;32,1547-1553. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dautzenberg, B, Piperno, P, Diot, P, et al Clarithromycin in the treatment ofMycobacterium aviumlung infections in patients without AIDS.Chest1995;107,1035-1040. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Roussel, G, Igual, J Clarithromycin with minocycline and clofazimine forMycobacterium avium intracellulare complexlung disease in patients without the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. GETIM: Groupe d’Etude et de Traitment des Infections a Mycobacteries.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis1998;2,462-470. [PubMed]
 
Tanaka, E, Kimoto, T, Tsuyuguchi, K, et al Effect of clarithromycin regimen forMycobacterium avium complexpulmonary disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1999;160,866-872. [PubMed]
 
Huang, JH, Kao, PN, Adi, V, et al Mycobacterium avium-intracellularepulmonary infection in HIV-negative patients without preexisting lung disease: diagnostic and management limitations.Chest1999;115,1033-1040. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Field, SK, Cowie, RL Treatment ofMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complexlung disease with a macrolide, ethambutol, and clofazimine.Chest2003;124,1482-1486. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kennedy, TP, Weber, DJ Nontuberculous mycobacteria: an underappreciated cause of geriatric lung disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1994;149,1654-1658. [PubMed]
 
Heifets, LB Synergistic effect of rifampin, streptomycin, ethionamide, and ethambutol onMycobacterium intracellulare.Am Rev Respir Dis1982;125,43-48. [PubMed]
 
Bates, JB, Jr Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare: rational therapy of chronic pulmonary infection?Am Rev Respir Dis1986;134,431-432. [PubMed]
 
Anderson, R, Joone, G, van Rensburg, CEJ Anin vitroevaluation of the cellular uptake and intraphagocytic bioactivity of clarithromycin (A-56268, TE-031), a new macrolide antimicrobial agent.J Antimicrob Chemother1988;22,923-933. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brown, BA, Wallace, RJ, Jr, Onyi, GO Activities of clarithromycin against eight slowly growing species of nontuberculous mycobacteria, determined by using a broth microdilution MIC system.Antimicrob Agents Chemother1992;36,1987-1990. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Olsen, KM, San Pedro, GS, Gann, LP, et al Intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in healthy volunteers given five oral doses.Antimicrob Agents Chemother1996;40,2582-2585. [PubMed]
 
Baldwin, DR, Wise, R, Andrews, JM, et al Azithromycin concentrations at the sites of pulmonary infection.Eur Respir J1990;3,886-890. [PubMed]
 
Gladue, RP, Bright, GM, Isaacson, RE, et al In vitroandin vivouptake of azithromycin (CP-62, 993) by phagocytic cells: possible mechanism of delivery and release at sites of infection.Antimicrob Agents Chemother1989;33,277-282. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Pierce, M, Crampton, S, Henry, D, et al A randomized trial of clarithromycin as prophylaxis against disseminatedMycobacterium avium complexinfection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.N Engl J Med1996;335,384-391. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shafran, SD, Singer, J, Zarowny, DP, et al A comparison of two regimens for the treatment ofMycobacterium avium complexbacteremia in AIDS: rifabutin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin versus rifampin, ethambutol, clofazimine, and ciprofloxacin; Canadian HIV Trails Network Protocol 010 Study Group.N Engl J Med1996;335,377-383. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Horsburgh, CR, Jr Advances in the prevention and treatment ofMycobacterium aviumdisease.N Engl J Med1996;335,428-430. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nash, KA Effect of drug concentration on emergence of macrolide resistance inMycobacterium avium.Antimicrob Agents Chemother2001;45,1607-1614. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Brown, BA, Griffith, DE Drug intolerance to high-dose clarithromycin among elderly patients.Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis1993;16,215-221. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Girard, WM, et al Adverse events associated with high-dose rifabutin in macrolide-containing regimens for the treatment ofMycobacterium avium complexlung disease.Clin Infect Dis1995;21,594-598. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Apseloff, G, Foulds, G, Laboy-Goral, L, et al Comparison of azithromycin and clarithromycin in their interactions with rifabutin in healthy volunteers.J Clin Pharmacol1998;38,830-835. [PubMed]
 
Gioulekas, J, Hall, A Uveitis associated with rifabutin therapy.Aust N Z J Ophthalmol1995;23,319-321. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Le Gars, L, Collon, T, Picard, O, et al Polyarthralgia-arthritis syndrome induced by low doses of rifabutin.J Rheumatol1998;26,1201-1202
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Wallace, RJ, Jr Varying doses of rifabutin affect white blood cell and platelet counts in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients who are receiving multidrug regimens for pulmonaryMycobacterium avium complexdisease.Clin Infect Dis1996;23,1321-1322. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Brown, BA, Griffith, DE, et al Reduced serum levels of clarithromycin in patients treated with multidrug regimens including rifampin or rifabutin forMycobacterium avium-M intracellulareinfection.J Infect Dis1995;171,747-750. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brown, BA, Griffith, DE, Girard, W, et al Relationship of adverse effects to serum drug levels in patients receiving high-dose azithromycin for mycobacterial lung disease.Clin Infect Dis1997;24,958-964. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Rodriguez Diaz, JC, Lopez, M, Ruiz, M, et al In vitroactivity of new fluoroquinolones and linezolid against non-tuberculous mycobacteria.Int J Antimicrob Agents2003;21,585-588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vesterhus, P, Holland, SM, Abrahamsen, TG, et al Familial disseminated infection due to atypical mycobacteria with childhood onset.Clin Infect Dis1998;27,822-825. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Murray, HW Interferon-γ, the activated macrophage, and host defense against microbial challenge.Ann Intern Med1988;108,595-608. [PubMed]
 

Figures

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Salient Clinical Features of M avium Lung Disease
Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. 1997 ATS Recommendations for Treatment of M avium Pulmonary Disease*
* 

Treatment should be reserved for patients with a clinical picture consistent with M avium lung disease and confirmed infection with a minimum of three culture-positive sputum specimens or two culture-positive specimens if one is smear positive. Treatment should include a combination of a macrolide, either clarithromycin or azithromycin, a rifamycin, either rifabutin or rifampin, and ethambutol. These medications should be continued for a year after sputum has converted to negative. Streptomycin should also be administered during the first 8 weeks of medication therapy.

 

Our recommendation.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 3. Regimens Used Prior to the Introduction of Ethambutol or Rifampin, 1957–1971*
* 

NA = not available; CN = conversion to negative; H = isoniazid; PAS + 2 = PAS and at least two other antibiotics, depending on the susceptibility studies; S = streptomycin; S + = streptomycin plus other antibiotics.

 

One of the six who responded.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 4. Regimens That Included Ethambutol and/or Rifampin Published Between 1974 and 2001*
* 

See Table 3 for expansion of abbreviations. E = ethambutol; R + = rifampin plus other antibiotics; RE = rifampin and ethambutol; HRE = isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol; HRE + = isoniazid, rifampin, and ethambutol plus other antibiotics; A = amikalin; Cm = capreomycin; Cs = cycloserine; Eth = ethionamide.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 5. Macrolide-Containing Regimens in the Treatment of MAC Lung Disease
* 

See Tables 3, 4 for expansion of abbreviations. C = clarithromycin; Rf = rifampicin; Rb = rifabutin; A 600 = azithromycin, 600 mg/d; M = minocycline; Clo = clofazimine; TIW = three times a week; Ofl = ofloxacin or levofloxacin.

References

Edwards, LB, Palmer, CE (1959) Isolation of “atypical” mycobacteria from healthy persons.Am Rev Respir Dis80,747-749. [PubMed]
 
Prince, DS, Peterson, DD, Steiner, RM, et al Infection withMycobacterium avium complexin patients without predisposing conditions.N Engl J Med1989;321,863-868. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Tsukumura, M Background factors for casual isolation ofMycobacterium intracellularefrom sputum of patients with tuberculosis.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,679-683. [PubMed]
 
Tsukumura, M Clinical significance of casual isolation of acid-fast organisms from sputum of tuberculous patients.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,1429-1430. [PubMed]
 
Horsburgh, CJ, Jr, Selik, RM The epidemiology of disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Am Rev Respir Dis1989;139,4-7. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hawkins, CC, Gold, WM, Whimbey, E, et al Mycobacterium avium-complexinfections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.Ann Intern Med1986;105,184-188. [PubMed]
 
Nightingale, SD, Byrd, LT, Southern, PM, et al Incidence ofMycobacterium avium-intracellularein human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients.J Infect Dis1992;165,1082-1085. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
American Thoracic Society. Diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;156,S1-S25. [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE Mycobacteria as pathogens of respiratory infection.Infect Dis North Am1998;12,593-611. [CrossRef]
 
Hocqueloux, L, Lesprit, P, Herrmann, JL, et al PulmonaryMycobacterium avium complexdisease without dissemination in HIV-infected patients.Chest1998;113,542-548. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Lincoln, EM, Gilbert, LA Disease in children due to mycobacteria other thanMycobacterium tuberculosis.Am Rev Respir Dis1972;105,683-714. [PubMed]
 
O’Brien, RJ, Geiter, LJ, Snider, DE, Jr The epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases in the United States.Am Rev Respir Dis1987;135,1007-1014. [PubMed]
 
Horsburgh, CR Epidemiology of human disease caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Can J Infect Dis1994;5,5B-9B
 
Elwood, RK, Opazo, AM, Lentini, V, et al Incidence of pulmonary disease caused by mycobacteria other than tuberculosis in British Columbia.Can Respir J2002;9,319-323. [PubMed]
 
Kennedy, MP, O’Connor, TM, Ryan, C, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria: incidence in Southwest Ireland from 1987 to 2000.Respir Med2003;97,257-263. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Marras, TK, Daley, CL Epidemiology of human pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria nontuberculous.Clin Chest Med2002;23,553-567. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Barker, AF Bronchiectasis.N Engl J Med2002;346,1383-1393. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Angrill, J, Agusti, C, Torres, A Bronchiectasis.Curr Opin Infect Dis2001;14,193-197. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kilby, JM, Gilligan, PH, Yankaskas, JR, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria in adult patients with cystic fibrosis.Chest1992;102,70-75. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Oliver, A, Maiz, L, Canton, R, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis.Clin Infect Dis2001;32,1298-1303. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ahn, CH, Lowell, JR, Onstad, GD, et al A demographic study of disease due toMycobacterium kansasiiorM intracellulare-aviumin Texas.Chest1979;75,120-125. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Trnka, L, Dankova, D, Svandova, E Six years’ experience with the discontinuation of BCG vaccination: 4. Protective effect of BCG vaccination against theMycobacterium avium intracellulare complex.Tuberc Lung Dis1994;75,348-352. [CrossRef]
 
Romanus, V, Hallander, HO, Wahlen, P, et al Atypical mycobacteria in extrapulmonary disease among children: incidence in Sweden from 1969 to 1990, related to changing BCG-vaccination coverage.Tuber Lung Dis1995;76,300-310. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vankayalapati, R, Wizel, B, Samten, B, et al Cytokine profiles in immunocompetent persons infected withMycobacterium avium complex.J Infect Dis2001;183,478-484. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
American Thoracic Society. Diagnosis and treatment of disease caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria.Am Rev Respir Dis1990;142,940-953. [PubMed]
 
Corpe, RF Surgical management of pulmonary disease due toMycobacterium avium-intracellulare.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1064-1067. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Moran, JF, Alexander, LG, Staub, EW, et al Long-term results of pulmonary resection for atypical mycobacterial disease.Ann Thorac Surg1983;35,597-604. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nelson, KG, Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, et al Results of operation inMycobacterium avium-intracellularelung disease.Ann Thorac Surg1998;66,325-330. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Pomerantz, M, Madsen, L, Goble, M, et al Surgical management of resistantMycobacterial tuberculosisand other mycobacterial pulmonary infections.Ann Thorac Surg1991;52,1108-1112. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shiriaishi, Y, Nakajima, Y, Takasuna, K, et al Surgery forMycobacterium avium complexlung disease in the clarithromycin era.Eur J Cardiothorac Surg2002;21,314-318. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wolinsky, E Nontuberculous mycobacteria and associated diseases.Am Rev Respir Dis1979;119,107-159
 
Jenkins, PA Nontuberculous mycobacteria and disease.Eur J Respir Dis1981;62,69-71. [PubMed]
 
Pinner, M Atypical acid-fast microorganisms.Am Rev Tuberc1935;32,424-439
 
Feldman, WH, Davies, R, Moses, HE, et al An unusual mycobacterium isolated from sputum of a man suffering from pulmonary disease of long duration.Am Rev Tuberc1943;48,82-93
 
Timpe, A, Runyon, EH The relationship of “atypical” acid-fast bacteria to human disease: a preliminary report.J Lab Clin Med1954;44,202-209. [PubMed]
 
Lewis, AG, Jr, Dunbar, FP, Lasche, EM, et al Chronic pulmonary disease due to atypical mycobacterial infections.Am Rev Respir Dis1959;80,188-199. [PubMed]
 
Reznikov, M, Leggo, JH Investigation by seroagglutination of strains of theMycobacterium intracellulare-M scrofulaceumgroup from house dusts and sputum in southeastern Queensland.Am Rev Respir Dis1971;104,951-953. [PubMed]
 
Bhatia, SVN A study of mycobacterial species isolated from patients with chronic respiratory disease.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,378-381. [PubMed]
 
Robakiewicz, M, Grzybowski, S Epidemiologic aspects of nontuberculous mycobacterial disease and of tuberculosis in British Columbia.Am Rev Respir Dis1974;109,613-620. [PubMed]
 
Goslee, S, Wolinsky, E Water as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria.Am Rev Respir Dis1976;113,287-292. [PubMed]
 
Meissner, G, Anz, W Sources ofMycobacterium avium complexresulting in human diseases.Am Rev Respir Dis1977;116,1057-1064. [PubMed]
 
Schaeffer, WB Incidence of the serotypes ofMycobacterium aviumand atypical mycobacteria in human and animal diseases.Am Rev Respir Dis1968;97,18-23. [PubMed]
 
Sriyabhaya, N, Wongwatana, S Pulmonary infection caused by atypical mycobacteria in Thailand.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1085-1089. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kleeberg, HH Epidemiology of mycobacteria other than tubercle bacilli in South Africa.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1008-1012. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gorse, GJ, Fairshter, RD, Friedly, G, et al Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease: experience in a Southern California hospital.Arch Intern Med1983;143,225-228. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Eaton, T, Falkinham, JO, III, von Reyn, CF Recovery ofMycobacterium aviumfrom cigarettes.J Clin Microbiol1995;33,2757-2758. [PubMed]
 
Gruft, H, Falkinham, JO, III, Parker, BC Recent experience in the epidemiology of disease caused by atypical mycobacteria.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,990-996. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
von Reyn, CF, Maslow, JN, Barber, TW, et al Persistent colonization of potable water as a source ofMycobacterium aviuminfection in AIDS.Lancet1994;343,1137-1141. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
du Moulin, GC, Stottmeier, KD, Pelletier, PA, et al Concentration of.Mycobacterium aviumby hospital hot water systems.JAMA1988;260,1599-1601. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wendt, SL, George, KL, Parker, BC, et al Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria: III. Isolation of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria from aerosols.Am Rev Respir Dis1980;122,259-263. [PubMed]
 
Parker, BC, Ford, MA, Gruft, H, et al Epidemiology of infection by nontuberculous mycobacteria: IV. Preferential aerosolization of mycobacterium intracellulare from natural waters.Am Rev Respir Dis1983;128,652-656. [PubMed]
 
O’Brien, DP, Currie, BJ, Krause, VL, et al Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease in Northern Australia: a case series and review of the literature.Clin Infect Dis2000;31,958-968. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hemphill, RA, Morton, JH “Battey” disease in Dublin, Georgia.Am Rev Respir Dis1969;100,410-411. [PubMed]
 
Woods, GL, Washington, JA, II Mycobacteria other thanMycobacterium tuberculosis: review of microbiologic and clinical aspects.Rev Infect Dis1987;9,275-294. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Maesaki, S, Kohno, S, Koga, H, et al A clinical comparison betweenMycobacterium aviumandMycobacterium intracellulareinfections.Chest1993;104,1408-1411. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Edwards, LB, Palmer, CE, Edwards, PQ Further studies of geographic variation in naturally acquired tuberculin sensitivity.Bull World Health Organ1955;22,63-83
 
Edwards, LB, Comstock, GW, Palmer, CE Contributions of Northern populations to the understanding of tuberculin sensitivity.Arch Environ Health1968;17,507-516. [PubMed]
 
Palmer, CE, Edwards, PQ Sensitivity of human populations to human and avian tuberculins.Bull World Health Organ1955;22,85-99
 
Edwards, LB, Acquaviva, FA, Livesay, VT, et al Atlas of sensitivity to tuberculin, PPD-B, and histoplasmin in US.Am Rev Respir Dis1969;99(suppl),1-131
 
Christensen, EE, Dietz, GW, Ahn, CH, et al Pulmonary manifestations ofMycobacterium intracellularis.AJR Am J Roentgenol1979;133,59-66. [PubMed]
 
Christensen, EE, Dietz, GW, Ahn, CH, et al Initial roentgenographic manifestations of pulmonaryMycobacterium tuberculosis,M kansasii, and M intracellularisinfectionsChest1981;80,132-136. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ahn, CH, McLarty, JW, Ahn, SS, et al Diagnostic criteria for pulmonary disease caused byMycobacterium kansasiiandMycobacterium intracellulare.Am Rev Respir Dis1982;125,388-391. [PubMed]
 
Phillips, S, Larkin, JC, Jr Atypical pulmonary tuberculosis caused by unclassified mycobacteria.Ann Intern Med1964;60,401-408. [PubMed]
 
Crow, HE, King, CT, Smith, CE, et al A limited clinical, pathologic, and epidemiologic study of patients with pulmonary lesions associated with atypical acid-fast bacilli in the sputum.Am Rev Respir Dis1957;75,199-222
 
Wijsmuller, G, Erickson, P The reaction to PPD-Battey: a new look.Am Rev Respir Dis1974;109,29-40. [PubMed]
 
Lewis, AG, Jr, Lasche, EM, Armstrong, AL, et al A clinical study of the chronic lung disease due to nonphotochromogenic acid-fast bacilli.Ann Intern Med1960;53,273-285. [PubMed]
 
Warring, FC, Jr Mycobacteria in a New England hospital: a study of mycobacterial species occurring in the sputum of patients with chronic pulmonary disease.Am Rev Respir Dis1968;98,965-977. [PubMed]
 
Bates, JH A study of pulmonary disease associated with mycobacteria other thanMycobacterium tuberculosis: clinical characteristics.Am Rev Respir Dis1967;96,1151-1156. [PubMed]
 
Rosenzweig, DY Pulmonary mycobacterial infections due toMycobacterium intracellulare-avium complex: clinical features and course in 100 consecutive cases.Chest1979;75,115-119. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Stottmeier, KD, Tose, L, Jones, C Clinical and bacteriologic evaluation of pulmonary mycobacterioses in the greater Boston area.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,1227-1230. [PubMed]
 
Ahn, CH, Lowell, JR, Onstad, GD, et al A demographic study of disease due toMycobacterium kansasiiorM intracellulare-aviumin Texas.Chest1979;75,120-125. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Good, RC, Snider, DE Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria in the United States, 1980.J Infect Dis1982;146,829-833. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Contreras, MA, Cheung, OT, Sanders, DE, et al Pulmonary infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria.Am Rev Respir Dis1988;137,149-152. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Reich, JM, Johnson, RE Mycobacterium avium complexpulmonary disease: incidence, presentation, and response to therapy in a community setting.Am Rev Respir Dis1991;143,1381-1385. [PubMed]
 
Cox, JN, Brenner, ER, Bryan, CS Changing patterns of mycobacterial disease at a teaching community hospital.Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol1994;15,513-515. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Chapman, JS The atypical mycobacteria.Am Rev Respir Dis1982;125,119-124. [PubMed]
 
Epstein, MD, Aranda, CP, Bonk, S, et al The significance ofMycobacterium avium complexcultivation in the sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.Chest1997;111,142-147. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Beck, F Pulmonary disease due to atypical tubercle bacilli.Am Rev Respir Dis1959;80,738-743. [PubMed]
 
Kubo, K, Yamazaki, Y, Hachiya, T, et al Mycobacterium avium-intracellularepulmonary infection in patients without known predisposing pulmonary disease.Lung1998;176,381-391. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Obayashi, Y, Fujita, J, Suemitsu, I, et al Clinical features of non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease: comparisons between smear-positive and smear-negative cases, and betweenMycobacterium aviumandMycobacterium intracellulare.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis1998;2,597-602. [PubMed]
 
Embril, J, Warren, P, Yakrus, M, et al Pulmonary illness associated with exposure toMycobacterium avium complexin hot tub water: hypersensitivity pneumonitis or infection?Chest1997;111,813-816. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 27–2000.N Engl J Med2000;343,642-649. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kahana, LM, Kay, JM, Yakrus, MA, et al Mycobacterium avium complexinfection in an immunocompetent young adult related to hot tub exposure.Chest1997;111,242-245. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Cappelluti, E, Fraire, AE, Schaefer, OP A case of “hot tub lung” due toMycobacterium avium complexin an immunocompetent host.Arch Intern Med2003;163,845-848. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Swensen, SJ, Hartman, TE, Williams, DE Computed tomographic diagnosis ofMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complexin patients with bronchiectasis.Chest1994;105,49-52. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wittram, C, Weisbrod, GL Mycobacterium avium complexlung disease in immunocompetent patients: radiography-CT correlation.Br J Radiol2002;75,340-344. [PubMed]
 
Tanaka, D, Niwatsukino, H, Oyama, T, et al Progressing features of atypical mycobacterial infection in the lung on conventional and high resolution CT (HRCT) images.Radiat Med2001;19,237-245. [PubMed]
 
Olivier, KN Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease.Curr Opin Pulm Med1998;4,148-153. [PubMed]
 
Tanaka, E, Amitani, R, Niimi, A, et al Yield of computed tomography and bronchoscopy for the diagnosis ofMycobacterium avium complexpulmonary disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1997;155,2041-2046. [PubMed]
 
Reich, JM, Johnson, RE Mycobacterium avium complexpulmonary disease presenting as an isolated lingular or middle lobe pattern.Chest1992;101,1605-1609. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Maycher, B, O’Connor, R, Long, R Computed tomographic abnormalities inMycobacterium avium complexlung disease include the mosaic pattern of reduced lung attenuation.Can Assoc Radiol J2000;51,93-102. [PubMed]
 
Kubo, K, Yamakazi, Y, Masubuchi, T, et al Pulmonary infection withMycobacterium avium-intracellulareleads to air trapping distal to the small airways.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1998;158,979-984. [PubMed]
 
Primack, SL, Logan, PM, Hartman, TE, et al Pulmonary tuberculosis andMycobacterium avium-intracellulare: a comparison of CT findings.Radiology1995;194,413-417. [PubMed]
 
Lynch, DA, Simone, PM, Fox, MA, et al CT features of pulmonaryMycobacterium avium complexinfection.J Comput Assist Tomogr1995;19,353-360. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Obayashi, Y, Fujita, J, Suemitsu, I, et al Successive follow-up of chest computed tomography in patients withMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex.Respir Med1999;93,11-15. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Bates, JH Mycobacterium aviumdisease: progress at last.Am Rev Respir Dis1986;153,1737-1738
 
Rastogi, N, Frehel, C, Ryter, A, et al Multiple drug resistance inMycobacterium avium: is the wall architecture responsible for the exclusion of antimicrobial agents?Antimicrob Agents Chemother1981;20,666-677. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Susceptibility testing of mycobacteria, Nocardia, and other aerobic actinomycetes. 2d. Tentative standard M24–T2. 2000; National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. Wayne, PA:.
 
Chaisson, RE, Benson, CA, Dube, MP, et al Clarithromycin therapy for bacteremicMycobacterium avium complexdisease: a randomized, double-blind, dose-ranging study in patients with AIDS: AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 157 Study Team.Ann Intern Med1994;121,905-911. [PubMed]
 
Woods, GL Susceptibility for mycobacteria.Clin Infect Dis2000;31,1209-1215. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jamal, MA, Maeda, S, Nakata, N, et al Molecular basis of clarithromycin-resistance inMycobacterium avium intracellulare complex.Tuber Lung Dis2000;80,1-4. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Zhang, Y, Brown, BA, et al PolyclonalMycobacterium avium complexinfections in patients with nodular bronchiectasis.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1998;158,1235-1244. [PubMed]
 
Yamazaki, Y, Kubo, K, Takamizawa, A, et al Markers indicating deterioration of pulmonaryMycobacterium avium-intracellulareinfection.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1999;160,1851-1855. [PubMed]
 
DeGroote, MA, Huitt, G, Fulton, K, et al Retrospective analysis of aspiration risk and genetic predisposition in bronchiectasis patients with and without non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection [abstract]. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2001;;163 ,.:A763
 
Olivier, KN, Weber, DJ, Wallace, RJ, Jr, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria: I. Multicenter prevalence study in cystic fibrosis.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2003;167,828-834. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Olivier, KN, Weber, DJ, Lee, J-H, et al Nontuberculous mycobacteria: II. Nested-cohort study of impact on cystic fibrosis lung disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2003;167,835-840. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Iseman, MD, Buschman, DL, Ackerson, LM Pectus excavatum and scoliosis: thoracic abnormalities associated with pulmonary disease caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Am Rev Respir Dis1991;144,914-916. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Guide, SV, Holland, SM Host susceptibility factors in mycobacterial infection: genetics and body morphotype.Infect Dis Clin North Am2002;16,163-186. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Huang, JH, Oefner, PJ, Adi, V, et al Analyses of the NRAMP1 and IFN-γR1 genes in women withMycobacterium avium-intracellularepulmonary disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1998;157,377-381. [PubMed]
 
Tanaka, E, Kimoto, T, Matsumoto, H, et al Familial pulmonaryMycobacterium avium complexdisease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;161,1643-1647. [PubMed]
 
Watanabe, K, Fujimura, M, Kasahara, K, et al Characteristics of pulmonaryMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex(MAC) infection in comparison with those of tuberculosis.Respir Med2003;97,654-659. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kubo, K, Yamazaki, Y, Hanaoka, M, et al Analysis of HLA antigens inMycobacterium avium-intracellulareinfection.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;161,1368-1371. [PubMed]
 
Chakraborty, AK, Damle, PB, Davidson, PT, et al Disease due toMycobacterium intracellulare: its possible association with human leukocyte antigens.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1060-1063. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM Nontuberculous mycobacteria.Am J Med Sci2001;321,49-55. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Newport, MJ, Huxley, CM, Huston, S, et al A mutation in the interferon-γ-receptor gene and susceptibility to mycobacterial infection.N Engl J Med1996;335,1941-1949. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jouanguy, E, Altare, F, Lamhamedi, S, et al Interferon-γ-receptor deficiency in an infant with fatal bacille Calmette-Guerin infection.N Engl J Med1996;335,1956-1961. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dorman, SE, Holland, SM Mutation in the signal-transducing chain of the interferon-γ receptor and susceptibility to mycobacterial infection.J Clin Invest1998;101,2364-2369. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM Immune deficiency presenting as mycobacterial infection.Clin Rev Immunol2001;20,121-137. [CrossRef]
 
Dorman, SE, Holland, SM Interferon-γ and interleukin-12 pathway defects and human disease.Cytokine Growth Factor Rev2000;11,321-333. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jouanguy, E, Lamhamedi-Cherradi, S, Lammas, D, et al A human IFNγR1 small deletion hotspot associated with dominant susceptibility to mycobacterial infection.Nat Genet1999;21,370-378. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM Immunotherapy of mycobacterial infections.Semin Respir Infect2001;16,47-59. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shirasuchi, H, Ellner, JJ Expression of IL-18 byMycobacterium avium-infected human monocytes: association withM aviumvirulence.Clin Exp Immunol2001;123,203-209. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Doherty, TM, Sher, A IL-12 promotes drug-induced clearance ofMycobacterium aviuminfection in mice.J Immunol1998;160,5428-5435. [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM, Dorman, SE, Kwon, A, et al Abnormal regulation of interferon-γ, interleukin-12, and tumor necrosis factor-α in human interferon-γ receptor 1 deficiency.J Infect Dis1998;178,1095-1104. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dupuis, S, Dargemont, C, Fieschi, C, et al Impairment of mycobacterial but not viral immunity by a germline human STAT1 mutation.Science2001;293,300-303. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Holland, SM, Eisenstein, EM, Kuhns, DB, et al Treatment of refractory disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection with interferonγ: a preliminary report.N Engl J Med1994;330,1348-1355. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Chatte, G, Panteix, G, Perrin-Fayolle, M, et al Aerosolized interferon gamma forMycobacterium avium-complexdisease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1995;152,1094-1096. [PubMed]
 
Bermudez, LE, Inderlird, C, Young, LS Stimulation with cytokines enhances penetration of azithromycin in human macrophages.Antimicrob Agents Chemother1991;35,2625-2629. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Gomez-Flores, R, Tucker, SD, Kansal, R, et al Enhancement of antibacterial activity of clofazimine againstMycobacterium avium-Mycobacterium intracellulare complexinfection induced by IFNγ is mediated by TNFα.J Antimicrob Chemother1997;39,189-197. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Safdar, A, White, DA, Stover, D, et al Profound interferonγ deficiency in patients with chronic pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis.Am J Med2002;113,756-759. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Fischer, DA, Lester, W, Schaeffer, WB Infections with typical mycobacteria: five years’ experience at the National Jewish Hospital.Am Rev Respir Dis1968;98,29-34. [PubMed]
 
Yeagher, H, Jr, Raleigh, JW Pulmonary disease due toMycobacterium intracellulare.Am Rev Respir Dis1973;108,547-552. [PubMed]
 
Tsukumura, M, Shimoide, H, Segawa, J, et al Clinical feature of lung disease due toMycobacterium intracellulare.Kekkaku1974;49,139-145. [PubMed]
 
Dutt, AK, Stead, WW Long-term results of medical treatment inMycobacterium intracellulareinfection.Am J Med1979;67,449-453. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Seibert, AF, Bass, JB Four drug therapy of pulmonary disease due toMycobacterium-avium complex[abstract].Am Rev Respir Dis1979;119,A399
 
Davidson, PT, Khanijo, V, Goble, M, et al Treatment of disease due toMycobacterium intracellulare.Rev Infect Dis1981;3,1052-1059. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Hunter, AM, Campbell, IA, Jenkins, PA, et al Treatment of pulmonary infections caused by mycobacteria of theMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex.Thorax1981;36,326-329. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Engbaek, HC, Vergmann, B, Bentzon, MW Lung disease caused byMycobacterium avium/Mycobacterium intracellulare.Eur J Respir Dis1981;62,72-83. [PubMed]
 
Engbaek, HC, Vergmann, B, Bentzon, MW A prospective study of lung disease caused byMycobacterium avium/Mycobacterium intracellulare.Eur J Respir Dis1984;65,411-418. [PubMed]
 
Ahn, CH, Ahn, SS, Anderson, RA, et al A four-drug regimen for initial treatment of cavitary disease caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Am Rev Respir Dis1986;134,438-441. [PubMed]
 
Etzkorn, ET, Aldarondo, S, Mc Allister, CK, et al Medical therapy ofMycobacterium avium-intracellularepulmonary disease.Am Rev Respir Dis1986;134,442-445. [PubMed]
 
Horsburgh, CR, Mason, UG, III, Heifets, LB, et al Response to therapy of pulmonaryMycobacterium avium-intracellulareinfection correlates with results ofin vitrosusceptibility testing.Am Rev Respir Dis1987;135,418-421. [PubMed]
 
Tsukamura, M Evidence that antituberculous drugs are really effective in the treatment of pulmonary infection caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Am Rev Respir Dis1988;137,144-148. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Heurlin, N, Petrini, B Treatment of non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in patients without AIDS.Scand J Infect Dis1993;25,619-623. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Tsukamura, M, Ichiyama, S, Miyauchi, T Superiority of enviomycin or streptomycin over ethambutol in initial treatment of lung disease caused byMycobacterium avium complex.Chest1989;95,1056-1058. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Research committee of the British Thoracic Society. First randomized trial of treatments for pulmonary disease caused byM avium intracellulare, M malmoense, and M xenopiin HIV negative patients: rifampicin, ethambutol and isoniazid versus rifampicin and ethambutol.Thorax2001;56,167-172. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
The research committee of the BTS. Pulmonary disease caused byMycobacterium avium-intracellularein HIV-negative patients: five-year follow-up of patients receiving standardised treatment.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis2002;6,628-634. [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Brown, BA, Griffith, DE, et al Initial clarithromycin monotherapy forMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complexlung disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1994;149,1335-1341. [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Brown, BA, Griffith, DE, et al Clarithromycin regimens for pulmonaryMycobacterium avium complex.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1996;153,1766-1772. [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Girard, WM, et al Azithromycin activity againstMycobacterium avium complexlung disease in patients who were not infected with human immunodeficiency virus.Clin Infect Dis1996;23,983-989. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Murphy, DT, et al Initial (6-month) results of three-times-weekly azithromycin in treatment regimens forMycobacterium avium complexlung disease in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients.J Infect Dis1998;178,121-126. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Cegielski, P, et al Early results (at 6 months) with intermittent clarithromycin-including regimens for lung disease due toMycobacterium avium complex.Clin Infect Dis2000;30,288-292. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Girard, WM, et al Azithromycin-containing regimens for treatment ofMycobacterium avium complexlung disease.Clin Infect Dis2001;32,1547-1553. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Dautzenberg, B, Piperno, P, Diot, P, et al Clarithromycin in the treatment ofMycobacterium aviumlung infections in patients without AIDS.Chest1995;107,1035-1040. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Roussel, G, Igual, J Clarithromycin with minocycline and clofazimine forMycobacterium avium intracellulare complexlung disease in patients without the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. GETIM: Groupe d’Etude et de Traitment des Infections a Mycobacteries.Int J Tuberc Lung Dis1998;2,462-470. [PubMed]
 
Tanaka, E, Kimoto, T, Tsuyuguchi, K, et al Effect of clarithromycin regimen forMycobacterium avium complexpulmonary disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1999;160,866-872. [PubMed]
 
Huang, JH, Kao, PN, Adi, V, et al Mycobacterium avium-intracellularepulmonary infection in HIV-negative patients without preexisting lung disease: diagnostic and management limitations.Chest1999;115,1033-1040. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Field, SK, Cowie, RL Treatment ofMycobacterium avium-intracellulare complexlung disease with a macrolide, ethambutol, and clofazimine.Chest2003;124,1482-1486. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kennedy, TP, Weber, DJ Nontuberculous mycobacteria: an underappreciated cause of geriatric lung disease.Am J Respir Crit Care Med1994;149,1654-1658. [PubMed]
 
Heifets, LB Synergistic effect of rifampin, streptomycin, ethionamide, and ethambutol onMycobacterium intracellulare.Am Rev Respir Dis1982;125,43-48. [PubMed]
 
Bates, JB, Jr Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare: rational therapy of chronic pulmonary infection?Am Rev Respir Dis1986;134,431-432. [PubMed]
 
Anderson, R, Joone, G, van Rensburg, CEJ Anin vitroevaluation of the cellular uptake and intraphagocytic bioactivity of clarithromycin (A-56268, TE-031), a new macrolide antimicrobial agent.J Antimicrob Chemother1988;22,923-933. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brown, BA, Wallace, RJ, Jr, Onyi, GO Activities of clarithromycin against eight slowly growing species of nontuberculous mycobacteria, determined by using a broth microdilution MIC system.Antimicrob Agents Chemother1992;36,1987-1990. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Olsen, KM, San Pedro, GS, Gann, LP, et al Intrapulmonary pharmacokinetics of azithromycin in healthy volunteers given five oral doses.Antimicrob Agents Chemother1996;40,2582-2585. [PubMed]
 
Baldwin, DR, Wise, R, Andrews, JM, et al Azithromycin concentrations at the sites of pulmonary infection.Eur Respir J1990;3,886-890. [PubMed]
 
Gladue, RP, Bright, GM, Isaacson, RE, et al In vitroandin vivouptake of azithromycin (CP-62, 993) by phagocytic cells: possible mechanism of delivery and release at sites of infection.Antimicrob Agents Chemother1989;33,277-282. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Pierce, M, Crampton, S, Henry, D, et al A randomized trial of clarithromycin as prophylaxis against disseminatedMycobacterium avium complexinfection in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.N Engl J Med1996;335,384-391. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Shafran, SD, Singer, J, Zarowny, DP, et al A comparison of two regimens for the treatment ofMycobacterium avium complexbacteremia in AIDS: rifabutin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin versus rifampin, ethambutol, clofazimine, and ciprofloxacin; Canadian HIV Trails Network Protocol 010 Study Group.N Engl J Med1996;335,377-383. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Horsburgh, CR, Jr Advances in the prevention and treatment ofMycobacterium aviumdisease.N Engl J Med1996;335,428-430. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Nash, KA Effect of drug concentration on emergence of macrolide resistance inMycobacterium avium.Antimicrob Agents Chemother2001;45,1607-1614. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Brown, BA, Griffith, DE Drug intolerance to high-dose clarithromycin among elderly patients.Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis1993;16,215-221. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Girard, WM, et al Adverse events associated with high-dose rifabutin in macrolide-containing regimens for the treatment ofMycobacterium avium complexlung disease.Clin Infect Dis1995;21,594-598. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Apseloff, G, Foulds, G, Laboy-Goral, L, et al Comparison of azithromycin and clarithromycin in their interactions with rifabutin in healthy volunteers.J Clin Pharmacol1998;38,830-835. [PubMed]
 
Gioulekas, J, Hall, A Uveitis associated with rifabutin therapy.Aust N Z J Ophthalmol1995;23,319-321. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Le Gars, L, Collon, T, Picard, O, et al Polyarthralgia-arthritis syndrome induced by low doses of rifabutin.J Rheumatol1998;26,1201-1202
 
Griffith, DE, Brown, BA, Wallace, RJ, Jr Varying doses of rifabutin affect white blood cell and platelet counts in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients who are receiving multidrug regimens for pulmonaryMycobacterium avium complexdisease.Clin Infect Dis1996;23,1321-1322. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Wallace, RJ, Jr, Brown, BA, Griffith, DE, et al Reduced serum levels of clarithromycin in patients treated with multidrug regimens including rifampin or rifabutin forMycobacterium avium-M intracellulareinfection.J Infect Dis1995;171,747-750. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Brown, BA, Griffith, DE, Girard, W, et al Relationship of adverse effects to serum drug levels in patients receiving high-dose azithromycin for mycobacterial lung disease.Clin Infect Dis1997;24,958-964. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Rodriguez Diaz, JC, Lopez, M, Ruiz, M, et al In vitroactivity of new fluoroquinolones and linezolid against non-tuberculous mycobacteria.Int J Antimicrob Agents2003;21,585-588. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Vesterhus, P, Holland, SM, Abrahamsen, TG, et al Familial disseminated infection due to atypical mycobacteria with childhood onset.Clin Infect Dis1998;27,822-825. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Murray, HW Interferon-γ, the activated macrophage, and host defense against microbial challenge.Ann Intern Med1988;108,595-608. [PubMed]
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Find Similar Articles
CHEST Journal Articles
PubMed Articles
Guidelines
Infant/toddler pulmonary function tests-2008 revision & update.
American Association for Respiratory Care | 4/3/2009
Removal of the endotracheal tube—2007 revision & update.
American Association for Respiratory Care | 8/17/2007
  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543