0
Communications to the Editor |

Anti-inflammatory Effect of Pentoxifylline FREE TO VIEW

Ken-ichiro Inoue, MD; Hirohisa Takano, MD, PhD; Rie Yanagisawa, MD; Miho Sakurai, MD
Author and Funding Information

National Institute for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Japan

Correspondence to: Ken-ichiro Inoue, MD, Inhalation Toxicology Research Team, and Pathophysiology Research Team, National Institute for Environmental Studies, 16–2 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Japan; e-mail: inoue.kenichirou@nies.go.jp



Chest. 2004;126(1):321. doi:10.1378/chest.126.1.321
Text Size: A A A
Published online

To the Editor:

We read with great interest the recent in vitro study by Tong and colleagues.1We have some comments. First, the authors implicated the possibility of pentoxifylline as a therapeutic option for pulmonary sarcoidosis. A study2 has described that pentoxifylline has no severe side effects as compared with dexamethasone. However, as Tong et al1 introduced in their discussion, pentoxifylline induces a selective suppression of interleukin-2 and interferon-γ, T-helper type 1-derived cytokines.3T-cells play a central role in cell-mediated immune responses through the production of type 1 cytokines, such as interferon-γ and interleukin-2. It has been reported that the suppression of T-helper type 1 function damages the host response to fungi.4 We should give careful consideration when using the agent, especially its long-term use in clinical stages, because it may lead to mycosis in patients.

In addition, we wonder if dexamethasone could not inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1β expression in alveolar macrophages in the experiment by Tong et al.1 Glucocorticoids are potent inhibitors of immune response, inflammation, and endotoxic shock. This occurs, at least partly, through an inhibition of the synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.57 One of the target enzymes of glucocorticoids inhibition is interleukin-1β. Dexamethasone (10 nmol/L to 10 μmol/L) inhibits interleukin-1 messenger RNA in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated human monocytes in a dose-dependent fashion.8Also, dexamethasone suppresses interleukin-1β gene expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells through the inhibition of the activation of transcription factors related to endotoxin such as nuclear factor-κB and activator protein-1.9 Other mechanisms may be present in lipopolysaccharide-induced interleukin-1 production in alveolar macrophages of patients with sarcoidosis.

References

Tong, Z, Dai, H, Chen, B, et al (2003) Inhibition of cytokine release from alveolar macrophages in pulmonary sarcoidosis by pentoxifylline: comparison with dexamethasone.Chest124,1526-1532. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ward, A, Clissold, SP Pentoxifylline: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its therapeutic efficacy.Drugs1987;34,50-97. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Benbernou, N, Esnault, S, Potron, G, et al Regulatory effects of pentoxifylline on T-helper cell-derived cytokine production in human blood cells.J Cardiovasc Pharmacol1995;25,S75-S79. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Farah, CS, Elahi, S, Pang, G, et al T cells augment monocyte and neutrophil function in host resistance against oropharyngeal candidiasis.Infect Immun2001;69,6110-6118. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kern, JA, Lamb, RJ, Reed, JC, et al Dexamethasone inhibition of interleukin 1 β production by human monocytes: posttranscriptional mechanisms.J Clin Invest1988;81,237-244. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Knudsen, PJ, Dinarello, CA, Strom, TB Glucocorticoids inhibit transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of interleukin 1 in U937 cells.J Immunol1987;139,4129-4134. [PubMed]
 
Lee, SW, Tsou, AP, Chan, H, et al Glucocorticoids selectively inhibit the transcription of the interleukin 1β gene and decrease the stability of interleukin 1β mRNA.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A1988;85,1204-1208. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Arzt, E, Sauer, J, Pollmacher, T, et al Glucocorticoids suppress interleukin-1 receptor antagonist synthesis following induction by endotoxin.Endocrinology1994;134,672-677. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jeon, YJ, Han, SH, Lee, YW, et al Dexamethasone inhibits IL-1β gene expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by blocking NF-κ B/Rel and AP-1 activation.Immunopharmacology2000;48,173-183. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 

Figures

Tables

References

Tong, Z, Dai, H, Chen, B, et al (2003) Inhibition of cytokine release from alveolar macrophages in pulmonary sarcoidosis by pentoxifylline: comparison with dexamethasone.Chest124,1526-1532. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Ward, A, Clissold, SP Pentoxifylline: a review of its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, and its therapeutic efficacy.Drugs1987;34,50-97. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Benbernou, N, Esnault, S, Potron, G, et al Regulatory effects of pentoxifylline on T-helper cell-derived cytokine production in human blood cells.J Cardiovasc Pharmacol1995;25,S75-S79. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Farah, CS, Elahi, S, Pang, G, et al T cells augment monocyte and neutrophil function in host resistance against oropharyngeal candidiasis.Infect Immun2001;69,6110-6118. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Kern, JA, Lamb, RJ, Reed, JC, et al Dexamethasone inhibition of interleukin 1 β production by human monocytes: posttranscriptional mechanisms.J Clin Invest1988;81,237-244. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Knudsen, PJ, Dinarello, CA, Strom, TB Glucocorticoids inhibit transcriptional and post-transcriptional expression of interleukin 1 in U937 cells.J Immunol1987;139,4129-4134. [PubMed]
 
Lee, SW, Tsou, AP, Chan, H, et al Glucocorticoids selectively inhibit the transcription of the interleukin 1β gene and decrease the stability of interleukin 1β mRNA.Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A1988;85,1204-1208. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Arzt, E, Sauer, J, Pollmacher, T, et al Glucocorticoids suppress interleukin-1 receptor antagonist synthesis following induction by endotoxin.Endocrinology1994;134,672-677. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
Jeon, YJ, Han, SH, Lee, YW, et al Dexamethasone inhibits IL-1β gene expression in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells by blocking NF-κ B/Rel and AP-1 activation.Immunopharmacology2000;48,173-183. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
 
NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543