Malignant pleural mesothelioma is a disease of the industrialized age. Intimately associated with asbestos exposure, the incidence of this cancer has been steadily increasing worldwide. Treatment options for patients are not straightforward, and are best evaluated by a multidisciplinary team involving pulmonologists, thoracic surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, and hospice-care practitioners. Unfortunately, no treatment has conclusively improved survival beyond supportive care. As such, many patients will require symptom palliation or end-of-life care. Given the association with asbestos, some patients or their families will explore litigation for compensation. To this complex scenario, the multiauthored book Mesothelioma contributes a comprehensive review of the history and epidemiology of mesothelioma, clinical material on diagnosis, pathophysiology and therapy, and medicolegal aspects of the disease.