0
Clinical Investigations: SLEEP AND BREATHING |

Prevalence of Snoring and Symptoms of Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Primary School Children in Istanbul*

Refika Ersu, MD; Ayse Rodopman Arman, MD; Dilsad Save, MD; Bulent Karadag, MD; Fazilet Karakoc, MD; Meral Berkem, MD; Elif Dagli, MD
Author and Funding Information

*From the Marmara University, Atatlar/Istanbul, Turkey.

Correspondence to: Refika Ersu, MD, Selcuklar Sokak, Elvan Apartmanı 26/12, Akatlar-Istanbul/Turkey; e-mail: rersu@yahoo.com



Chest. 2004;126(1):19-24. doi:10.1378/chest.126.1.19
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Study objectives: Snoring during sleep is an important manifestation of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Although clinical history is not sufficiently sensitive and specific to distinguish primary snoring from OSAS, snoring is indicative of upper airway obstruction and may be associated with the presence of diurnal symptoms. Our study aims were to determine the prevalence of snoring in primary school children in Istanbul, and to evaluate the diurnal symptoms and conditions that may be associated with sleep problems.

Design, setting, and subjects: A parental questionnaire was used to assess the sleep and wake behavioral patterns in children. Eight representative schools in each of 9 school districts randomly selected from the 32 school districts in Istanbul were visited.

Results: The response rate was 78.1%; 2,147 of 2,746 questionnaires were fully completed, returned, and analyzed. The prevalence of habitual snoring was 7.0%. Habitual snorers had significantly more nighttime symptoms, such as observed apneas (odds ratio [OR], 16.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0 to 28.8; p < 0.0001), difficulty breathing (OR, 17.8; CI, 10.9 to 29.2; p < 0.0001), restless sleep, parasomnias, and nocturnal enuresis, compared to occasional and nonsnorers. There were also increased prevalence of daytime symptoms, such as falling asleep while watching television (OR, 1.8; CI, 0.9 to 3.7; p = 0.01) and in public places (OR, 2.1; CI, 1.2 to 3.8; p = 0.03), and hyperactivity (OR, 2.7; CI, 1.8 to 3.9; p < 0.0001). Exposure to cigarette smoke and the presence of asthma and hay fever increased the likelihood of habitual snoring. Children with a higher risk for OSAS (habitual snoring, apnea, and difficulty breathing during sleep) were also compared to nonsnorers. Although nighttime symptoms were more likely in the high-risk group, the risk of daytime symptoms increased as well.

Conclusions: Habitual snoring is a significant problem for children and may be associated with diurnal symptoms. Exposure to cigarette smoke at home and the presence of asthma and hay fever increase the likelihood of habitual snoring.


Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Figures

Tables

References

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Find Similar Articles
CHEST Journal Articles
PubMed Articles
Guidelines
  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543