David Carbone also touched on the importance of collaboration between the pulmonologists and other subspecialists, and the scientists who study or treat lung cancer patients. Traditionally, the Aspen Lung Conference has consisted largely of pulmonary scientists and clinicians. The pulmonary community now has many investigators (including Tom Petty, for whom the conference is named) who are interested primarily in the pathogenesis, prevention, detection, and treatment of preneoplasia or early lung cancer, but we are not yet engaged actively in the treatment of disseminated disease. Concepts that were first developed by researchers who were interested in cancer, such as the expansion of clones of cells with mutations or epigenetic alterations, have now been applied to other forms of lung disease, including interstitial fibrosis and pulmonary hypertension. We do not yet know the mechanistic details of the shared pathogenesis of COPD and lung cancer. There is much to be gained from the collaboration between scientists primarily interested in neoplastic tobacco-induced lung disease and those interested in nonneoplastic tobacco-induced lung disease.