This year’s Thomas L. Petty Aspen Lung Conference represents the second time that lung cancer has been the topic in the conference’s 45-year history. Seventeen years ago, Charles Scoggin chaired an Aspen Lung Conference on the Molecular and Cellular Biology of Lung Cancer. At that time, several oncogenes had been identified, but no tumor suppressor genes had yet been characterized. The Rb gene was first cloned later that year, and p53 was thought to be a tumor-associated antigen or an oncogene, not a tumor suppressor. No presenters discussed specific oncogenes in lung cancer, although there was a talk on alterations in DNA methylation. The conference focused on the general principles of cancer biology, but the specific mutations and alterations in gene expression that underlie the neoplastic process were largely unknown. Few of the participants were pulmonologists, and the research was not yet at the stage at which it could be readily translated to the clinical arena.