The differential diagnosis for endobronchial stenosis and hemoptysis includes primary neoplasm of the lung, metastatic cancer to the lung, pulmonary vasculitis, and granulomatous diseases of infectious or inflammatory origin.1–
Evaluation of the patient with hemoptysis begins by defining potential airway diseases, parenchymal abnormalities, and vascular sources of bleeding. A pulmonary vascular source can be arterial, venous, or capillary in origin. Arterial causes of hemoptysis include pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary embolus, and vascular neoplasms such as hemangiomas and Kaposi sarcoma.2
Goodpasture disease, pulmonary hemosiderosis, and isolated capillaritis are potential capillary reasons for hemoptysis.2
Venous causes are limited to cardiac and noncardiac sources of venous hypertension, such as pulmonary veno-occlusive disease.2
Bronchial, axillary, intercostal, and subclavian artery fistulas may all cause hemoptysis. These sources of hemoptysis were excluded in our patient by diagnostic angiography performed on hospital day 6.