The field of sleep medicine encompasses many disciplines, and today’s sleep specialists come from varied specialties, including pulmonology, neurology, psychiatry, otolaryngology, internal medicine, pediatrics, psychology, and dentistry. Nevertheless, arguably the most significant impact on public health stems from sleep-related breathing disorders. Significant complications of these disorders include excessive daytime sleepiness that may cause automobile and other accidents, and elevated cardiovascular and cerebrovascular risk. The presence of these known complications and associations magnifies the need for an in-depth understanding of the diagnosis and management of these disorders irrespective of the sleep specialist’s primary discipline. In keeping with this need, the book dedicates numerous case discussions to the diagnosis and management of sleep-disordered breathing. Important additions in this edition include a discussion on monitoring of respiration during sleep, along with current controversies in this area. The need for assessment of airflow limitation, as with the use of nasal pressure monitoring, is reviewed along with use of auto-titrating continuous positive airway pressure. The newly adopted Medicare definition of hypopnea is compared with other definitions and reviewed along with Medicare guidelines for continuous positive airway pressure reimbursement. The Maintenance of Wakefulness Test is now being required by a number of agencies to assess the ability of an individual to stay awake during various critical tasks, and this is reviewed in the second edition along with the traditional Multiple Sleep Latency Test.