Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is widespread in developing countries. Hypertension is a major contributor of CVD. Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a risk marker in hypertensive populations. Identification of LVH and treatment of high-risk patients can result in more effective use of the limited resources. LVH is diagnosed by echocardiography, often unavailable in developing countries. In Gambia, we used a hand-carried ultrasound (HCU) to examine 1,997 people. Seventeen percent had hypertension; of these, LVH was found in 65%. The battery-powered HCU permits clinicians to detect LVH in areas with limited access to diagnostic equipment, allowing identification of a high-risk hypertensive population.