Study objectives: Primary graft failure (PGF) is a devastating acute lung injury syndrome following lung transplantation. We sought to identify donor, recipient, and operative risk factors for its development.
Design: We conducted a cohort study of 255 consecutive lung transplant procedures performed between October 1991 and July 2000. We defined PGF as follows: (1) diffuse alveolar opacities exclusively involving allograft(s) and developing within 72 h of transplant, (2) a ratio of Pao2 to fraction of inspired oxygen < 200 beyond 48 h postoperatively, and (3) no other secondary cause of graft dysfunction identified. Risk factors were assessed individually and adjusted for confounding using multivariable logistic regression models.
Setting: Tertiary-care academic medical center.
Results: The overall incidence was 11.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.9 to 15.9). Following multivariable analysis, the risk factors independently associated with development of PGF were as follows: a recipient diagnosis of primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH; adjusted odds ratio [OR], 4.52; 95% CI, 1.29 to 15.9; p = 0.018), donor female gender (adjusted OR, 4.11; 95% CI, 1.17 to 14.4; p = 0.027), donor African-American race (adjusted OR, 5.56; 95% CI, 1.57 to 19.8; p = 0.008), and donor age < 21 years (adjusted OR, 4.06; 95% CI, 1.34 to 12.3; p = 0.013) and > 45 years (adjusted OR, 6.79; 95% CI, 1.61 to 28.5; p = 0.009).
Conclusions: Recipient diagnosis of PPH, donor African-American race, donor female gender, and donor age are independently and strongly associated with development of PGF.