Study objective: To assess the feasibility and short-term outcome of intracoronary irradiation after pure balloon angioplasty (POBA) of de novo and post-POBA restenotic lesions with a liquid β-emitter 188Re-filled balloon.
Design and setting: Nonrandomized prospective study with contemporaneous control group in a single medical center.
Patients and methods: In the Taiwan Radiation in Prevention of Post-Pure Balloon Angioplasty Restenosis study, 40 patients underwent 14-Gy irradiation and 15 patients underwent 20-Gy irradiation at a tissue depth of 0.5 mm after POBA. Thirty control patients received a 5-min inflation with a perfusion balloon catheter after POBA.
Results: No procedural or in-hospital complications, or 30-day major adverse cardiac events were noted. Six-month angiographic restenosis rates were 49% in the 14-Gy group, 20% in the 20-Gy group, and 57% in the control group (p = 0.05, 20-Gy group vs control group). In the lesions with an arc of calcification of < 180°, restenosis occurred in 15 of the 34 lesions (44%) in the 14-Gy group and in none of the 11 lesions (0%) in the 20-Gy group (p = 0.007). In a vessel with a reference diameter < 3.0 mm, restenosis occurred in 1 of the 8 lesions (13%) in the 20-Gy group, and in 8 of the 11 lesions (73%) in the control group (p = 0.02). In the post-POBA restenotic lesions, restenosis occurred in none of the six lesions (0%) in the 20-Gy group, and in five of the six lesions (83%) in the control group (p = 0.008).
Conclusions: Post-POBA, catheter-based brachytherapy in nonstented native coronary artery with a 188Re-filled balloon can effectively reduce target lesion restenosis with 20-Gy irradiation at a tissue depth of 0.5 mm and seems to be more effective in the treatment of lesions with an arc of calcification < 180°, in a vessel with a reference diameter of < 3.0 mm, and in post-POBA restenotic lesions.