Catamenial hemoptysis is a rare condition that is associated with the presence of intrapulmonary or endobronchial endometrial tissue. Diagnosis of and therapy for this condition are still a matter of debate. We describe a case of endobronchial endometriosis with catamenial hemoptysis. An endobronchial lesion was diagnosed by spiral CT scan, taken at the onset of the menses, and confirmed with flexible bronchoscopy. The patient was successfully treated with endoscopic Nd-YAG laser therapy with a 1-day in-hospital procedure. We suggest that endoscopic laser treatment should be the first line of therapy for central airway endometriosis, provided that the source of bleeding has been conclusively located and all of the lesions can be reached with the bronchoscope.