Background: Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a hypersensitivity disorder induced by Aspergillus species colonizing the bronchial tree. There are patients with asthma who fulfill the diagnostic criteria of ABPA by serologic evaluation (specific IgE/IgG to Aspergillus fumigatus), bronchography, CT, and or conventional linear tomography.
Objective: To identify different forms of ABPA based on various diagnostic criteria.
Methods: Eighteen patients with asthma fulfilling the criteria of ABPA were evaluated in the present study. Six patients each received a diagnosis of ABPA serologic positive (ABPA-S), ABPA with central bronchiectasis (ABPA-CB), and ABPA with central bronchiectasis and other radiologic features (ABPA-CB-ORF).
Results: The spirometric changes in the ABPA-S group (group 1) were mild, in the ABPA-CB group (group 2) were moderate, and in the ABPA-CB-ORF group (group 3) were severe. Absolute eosinophil count was raised in each group but was maximum (1,233 μL) in severe form of disease (group 3). Specific IgE against A fumigatus was raised in each group, and the maximum was 47.91 IU/mL in ABPA-CB-ORF. CT scan findings of the ABPA-S group were normal without central bronchiectasis. The exacerbation in symptoms was maximum in group 3 compared to other groups.
Conclusion: The present observations suggest that ABPA includes mild (ABPA-S), moderate (ABPA-CB), and severe (ABPA-CB-ORF) forms of disease. It is recommended, therefore, that the disease should be diagnosed early, treated at the mild form of disease (ABPA-S), and prevented from leading to ABPA-CB or ABPA-CB-ORF.