The mean severity score12
of the mitral valve was 8.6 ± 2.7 (range, 2 to 15). Of the 66 patients, 30 (45%) had a severity score of > 8, 19 (28.8%) had mitral orifice area of < 1 cm2, and 26 (39.4%) had calcification of the mitral valve on fluoroscopy. Technical success (defined as accomplishing at least one step of dilatation of the mitral valve) was achieved in all patients. The mean mitral orifice area increased from 1.08 ± 0.23 cm2 before the procedure to 1.68 ± 0.39 cm2 after the procedure (p = 0.0000) [Table 1]
. Satisfactory dilatation of the mitral valve (defined as a postprocedural mitral orifice area of > 1.5 cm2 or an increment in mitral orifice area of ≥ 50%) was achieved in 50 patients (75.8%). Moderate-to-severe mitral regurgitation occurred in three patients (4.5%), all of whom had ruptures of the chordae tendinea of the mitral valve that had been revealed by on-line transesophageal echocardiography. Two patients had undergone mitral valve replacement 1 week and 3 months, respectively, after undergoing the BMV. The other patient showed a gradual improvement in mitral regurgitation within 8 months after undergoing the procedure. One patient, who was in atrial fibrillation and had hypotension during balloon inflation but had no left atrial thrombus, noticed a mild weakness of her right arm 2 days after the procedure. There were no in-hospital deaths, occurrences of cardiac tamponade, or complications necessitating emergency cardiac operations. The mean fluoroscopy time was 7.6 ± 3.9 min (range, 1.4 to 25.9 min), the mean total procedure time was 50.2 ± 15.0 min (range, 30 to 115 min), and the mean duration of on-line transesophageal echocardiography was 39.4 ± 12.8 min (range, 20 to 90 min). Twenty patients (31%) reported that on-line transesophageal echocardiography was the most uncomfortable among the three consecutive transesophageal echocardiographic examinations (ie, preprocedural, online, and postprocedural), while 46% and 23% of patients, respectively, reported that the procedure was moderate and the least uncomfortable.