The evaluation and management of acute respiratory emergencies, including the use of mechanical ventilatory support, is outlined in a manner that insures that the reader will be prepared to better deal with these issues when such problems are encountered in clinical practice. Important aspects of chronic pulmonary disease assessment are discussed in the chapter “Measuring Chronic Illness at Home and at School,” while management of chronic pulmonary disease is emphasized by dedicated chapters that focus on the various aspects of inhalation therapy, oxygen therapy, and physiotherapy. Inasmuch as the mere prescription of therapy is often not sufficient to guarantee patient and family adherence to treatment, important concepts related to improving doctor-patient communication and for enhancing patient compliance with therapy are outlined. Practical measures to reduce allergen exposure in sensitive individuals, as well as self-management guidelines for the asthmatic child, oxygen therapy weaning in chronic neonatal lung disease, and tracheostomy care are some of the topics discussed in relation to management of pediatric respiratory disease at home. Importantly, the last two chapters of the first part focus on certain crucial aspects of pediatric medicine that have received increasing recognition in recent years. These include the impact of chronic respiratory disease and its therapy on the child’s quality of life, along with management of behavioral problems that may surface as a result of the diagnosis and treatment of a chronic childhood illness.