Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in the United States will continue to be a major public health issue, particularly as our elderly population grows. As surgery offers the best hope of cure for NSCLC, staging of NSCLC is critical because it directly impacts on the management of lung cancer. Cost, quality of life, safety, and accuracy of various staging methods all influence the clinical outcome. Staging of NSCLC is evolving due to the emergence of new and improved technologies. The objective of this article is to review the current methods used in staging of NSCLC. Currently, positron emission tomography and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) show promise in identifying patients that may benefit from surgery. Histologic confirmation via EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration, however, may still be necessary to accurately stage the mediastinum.