Background: Simultaneous ST-segment elevation in the precordial and inferior leads is a rare ECG finding in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and its clinical implications rarely have been reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features of this distinctive ECG manifestation and its impact on clinical outcome.
Methods and results: Between May 1993 and July 2001 in our hospital, direct percutaneous coronary intervention (dPCI) was performed in 924 patients with AMI. Of these 924 consecutive patients, 37 patients (4.0%) who had simultaneous ST-segment elevation (≥ 1 mm) in the precordial and inferior leads were retrospectively analyzed. Eight of these 37 patients who had a wrapped left anterior descending artery (LADA) occlusion were placed into group 1 (ie, wrapped LADA). Twenty-nine of the 37 patients who had anatomic lesions other than a wrapped LADA in the coronary arteries were placed into group 2 (ie, “nonwrapped” LADA). Group 2 patients had significantly higher incidences of cardiogenic shock (58.6% vs 0%, respectively; p = 0.004), pulmonary edema (43.8% vs 0%, respectively; p = 0.02), and sustained sudden cardiac death due to malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias (44.8% vs 0%, respectively; p = 0.03) than did group 1 patients. Group 1 patients usually had ST-segment elevations of < 2 mmin the inferior leads. However, group 2 patients always had ST-segment elevations of ≥ 2 mm in the inferior leads. Univariate analysis demonstrated that the mean (± SD) ST-segment elevation in the inferior leads was significantly higher in group 2 patients than in group 1 patients (11.08 ± 4.18 vs 2.95 ± 0.92 mm, respectively; p = 0.0001). Coronary angiography demonstrated that the incidence of multivessel disease (93.1% vs 37.5%, respectively; p = 0.002) and the incidence of severe obstructive two-vessel disease (ie, stenosis of > 85%) [93.1% vs 0%, respectively; p = 0.0001] were significantly higher in group 2 than in group 1 patients. Although there was no significant difference in the rate of unsuccessful reperfusion (24% vs 13%, respectively; p = 0.38) between group 2 and group 1 patients, the 30-day mortality rate was significantly higher in group 2 patients than in group 1 patients (48.3% vs 0%, respectively; p = 0.015).
Conclusions: AMI with ECG manifestation of simultaneous ST-segment elevation in precordial and inferior leads can be caused by either a wrapped LADA occlusion or a nonwrapped LADA occlusion. While patients with wrapped LADA occlusions usually have favorable clinical outcomes, patients with nonwrapped LADA occlusions usually have serious clinical presentations and unfavorable clinical outcomes. Specific clinical and ECG features identifying high-risk patients in this clinical setting would be extremely important for early, aggressive, and appropriate management.