The state-of-the-art asthma presentations focused on the biology of inflammation, the distal lung, functional consequences of airway structural changes, genetics/genomics, the epithelium, infection and asthma, airway smooth muscle, nocturnal asthma, severe asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, airway remodeling, pediatric aspects, and new and exploratory therapies. There were a large number of high-quality poster presentations and 19 oral abstract presentations covering a variety of novel and late-breaking research. Always stressed at the Aspen Lung Conference are the discussion sessions after the state-of-the-art and abstract presentations. The interactions were always lively and challenging. The conference summarizer, Jeffrey M. Drazen, MD, eloquently put all this information together and challenged all of us to define asthma phenotypes and genotypes for better future therapies.