0
Clinical Investigations: CANCER |

Mediastinal Lymph Node Involvement in Potentially Resectable Lung Cancer*: Comparison of CT, Positron Emission Tomography, and Endoscopic Ultrasonography With and Without Fine-Needle Aspiration

Annette Fritscher-Ravens, MD; Karl H. Bohuslavizki, MD, PhD; Lars Brandt; Christoph Bobrowski, MD; Christian Lund, MD; W. Trudo Knöfel, MD; Almuth Pforte, MD
Author and Funding Information

*From the Departments of Interdisciplinary Endoscopy (Dr. Fritscher-Ravens and Mr. Brandt), Nuclear Medicine (Dr. Bohuslavizki), Internal Medicine, Pulmonology (Drs. Bobrowski and Pforte), Radiology (Dr. Lund), and General Surgery (Dr. Knöfel), University Hospital Eppendorf, Hamburg, Germany.

Correspondence to: Annette Fritscher-Ravens, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Royal London Hospital, Whitechapel, London E1 1BB, United Kingdom; e-mail: fri.rav@btopenworld.com



Chest. 2003;123(2):442-451. doi:10.1378/chest.123.2.442
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Purpose: A prospective comparison of three imaging techniques: thoracic CT, positron emission tomography (PET), and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) with fine needle aspiration (FNA), each performed under routine conditions, for the detection of metastatic lymph nodes metastases in patients with lung cancer considered for operative resection.

Patients and methods: Following bronchoscopic evaluation, CT, PET, and EUS were performed to evaluate potential mediastinal involvement in 33 consecutive patients with bronchoscopic biopsy/cytology proven (n = 25) or radiologically suspected (n = 8) lung cancer prior to surgery. Surgical histology was used as “gold standard” to confirm the diagnosis of the primary tumor and the mediastinal status in all patients. Histology proved non-small cell lung cancer in 30 patients, neuroendocrine tumor in 1 patient, and benign disease in 2 patients.

Results: The mean age of the study group was 61.5 years (range, 41 to 80 years; 23 male patients). CT, PET, and EUS detected mediastinal lymph nodes (size, 0.4 to 1.6 cm) in 15, 14, and 27 patients (21 of which were suspected to be malignant on EUS), respectively. With respect to the correct prediction of mediastinal lymph node stage, the sensitivities of CT, PET, and EUS were 57%, 73%, and 94%. Specificities were 74%, 83%, and 71%. Accuracies were 67%, 79%, and 82%. Results of PET could be improved when combined with CT (sensitivity, 81%; specificity, 94%; accuracy, 88%). The specificity of EUS (71%) was improved to 100% by FNA cytology (EUS-guided FNA), which gave a tissue diagnosis including tumor type, without complications.

Conclusions: No single imaging method alone was conclusive in evaluating potential mediastinal involvement in apparently operable lung cancer and routine clinical conditions. A tissue diagnosis is extremely helpful. Because FNA can be performed at the same time as EUS, this combination emerged as the most useful technique in the evaluation of even very small mediastinal metastases of lung cancer. CT seems necessary additionally to evaluate the pretracheal region as well as the rest of the thorax, and PET may be valuable to detect distant metastases.

Figures in this Article

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Figures

Tables

References

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Find Similar Articles
CHEST Journal Articles
PubMed Articles
Guidelines
Intermetatarsal neuroma.
Academy of Ambulatory Foot and Ankle Surgery | 1/16/2004
  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543