0
Articles |

Noninvasive Staging of Non-small Cell Lung Cancer*: A Review of the Current Evidence

Eric M. Toloza, MD, PhD; Linda Harpole, MD, MPH; Douglas C. McCrory, MD, MHS
Author and Funding Information

*From the Departments of Surgery (Dr. Toloza) and Medicine (Drs. Harpole and McCrory), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Correspondence to: Eric M. Toloza, MD, PhD, Duke Thoracic Oncology, DUMC Box 3048, Durham, NC 27710; e-mail: toloz001@mc.duke.edu



Chest. 2003;123(1_suppl):137S-146S. doi:10.1378/chest.123.1_suppl.137S
Text Size: A A A
Published online

Study objectives: To determine the test performance characteristics of CT scanning, positron emission tomography (PET) scanning, MRI, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) for staging the mediastinum, and to evaluate the accuracy of the clinical evaluation (ie, symptoms, physical findings, or routine blood test results) for predicting metastatic disease in patients in whom non-small cell lung cancer or small cell lung cancer is diagnosed.

Design, setting, and participants: Systematic searches of MEDLINE, HealthStar, and Cochrane Library databases to July 2001, and of print bibliographies. Studies evaluating the staging results of CT scanning, PET scanning, MRI, or EUS, with either tissue histologic confirmation or long-term clinical follow-up, were included. The performance of the clinical evaluation was compared against the results of brain and abdominal CT scans and radionuclide bone scans.

Measurement and results: Pooled sensitivities and specificities for staging the mediastinum were as follows: for CT scanning: sensitivity, 0.57 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49 to 0.66); specificity, 0.82 (95% CI, 0.77 to 0.86); for PET scanning: sensitivity, 0.84 (95% CI, 0.78 to 0.89); specificity, 0.89 (95% CI, 0.83 to 0.93); and for EUS: sensitivity, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.61 to 0.89); specificity, 0.71 (95% CI, 0.56 to 0.82). For the evaluation of brain metastases, the summary estimate of the negative predictive value (NPV) of the clinical neurologic evaluation was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.91 to 0.96). For detecting adrenal and/or liver metastases, the summary NPV of the clinical evaluation was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.93 to 0.96), and for detecting bone metastases, it was 0.90 (95% CI, 0.86 to 0.93).

Conclusions: PET scanning is more accurate than CT scanning or EUS for detecting mediastinal metastases. The NPVs of the clinical evaluations for brain, abdominal, and bone metastases are ≥ 90%, suggesting that routinely imaging asymptomatic lung cancer patients may not be necessary. However, more definitive prospective studies that better define the patient population and improved reference standards are necessary to more accurately assess the true NPV of the clinical evaluation.

Figures in this Article

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Figures

Tables

References

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Sign In to Access Full Content

MEMBER & INDIVIDUAL SUBSCRIBER

Want Access?

NEW TO CHEST?

Become a CHEST member and receive a FREE subscription as a benefit of membership.

Individuals can purchase this article on ScienceDirect.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal.

Individuals can purchase a subscription to the journal or buy individual articles.

Learn more about membership or Purchase a Full Subscription.

INSTITUTIONAL ACCESS

Institutional access is now available through ScienceDirect and can be purchased at myelsevier.com.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Find Similar Articles
CHEST Journal Articles
PubMed Articles
Guidelines
Intermetatarsal neuroma.
Academy of Ambulatory Foot and Ankle Surgery | 1/16/2004
  • CHEST Journal
    Print ISSN: 0012-3692
    Online ISSN: 1931-3543