Although virtually all individuals with advanced lung cancer succumb to the disease, a substantial portion of individuals diagnosed at an earlier stage can be cured. This dichotomy has provoked interest in lung cancer screening. To date, randomized controlled trials of chest x-ray and sputum cytology have failed to demonstrate that screening with either modality decreases lung cancer mortality; neither of these technologies can be recommended. Early studies of lung cancer screening with low-dose CT (LDCT) appear promising; however, only data from observational studies are available. We recommend that individuals should only be screened with LDCT in the context of well-designed clinical trials.