The methods of managing spontaneous pneumothorax for CF patients has included observation,3,5–7,13 needle aspiration,13 closed thoracotomy using a chest tube,3,5–7,13–14 chemical pleurodesis with quinacrine,6–7,13,16,24 silver nitrate,7,13 tetracycline5,7,13–14 and talc,7,11,14,25 and surgical pleurodesis by either parietal pleurectomy or pleural abrasion.3,5–7,13,16 The combined results of these reports are shown in Table 1
. All of these published results are based on the retrospective analysis of charts and not as a result of controlled clinical trials. The choice of therapy was dependent on the size of the pneumothorax and the severity of symptoms. Thus, the choice of observation or needle aspiration was made more commonly in patients with small pneumothoraces or in those patients who were asymptomatic.