Angiogenesis, defined as the growth of new capillaries from preexisting vessels, is a pervasive biological phenomenon that is at the core of many physiologic and pathologic processes. An opposing balance of angiogenic and angiostatic factors regulates angiogenesis. Examples of physiologic processes that depend on angiogenesis include embryogenesis, wound repair, and the ovarian/menstrual cycle. In contrast, chronic inflammation associated with chronic fibroproliferative disorders as well as growth and metastasis of solid tumors are associated with aberrant angiogenesis. CXC chemokines comprise a unique cytokine family that contains members that exhibit on a structural/functional basis either angiogenic or angiostatic biological activity. In this review, we will discuss the role of CXC chemokines and angiogenesis in pulmonary fibrosis.