Respiratory diseases account for one death in four in the United States. Unlike many other high-impact diseases, such as heart disease and cancer, the incidence of many respiratory diseases, such as asthma and COPD, is increasing. Environmental factors are thought to be involved in many of these diseases, but except for the obvious impact of cigarette smoking, the exact factors and their mechanisms of action are still largely unknown. Although some progress has been made in treating these disorders, therapy is largely still supportive. Little is known about the processes responsible for the remodeling involved in the physiologic changes, nor do we know much about mechanisms that could be stimulated to effect repair of the damage. This meeting focused on the structural changes and their functional consequences as they occur in ARDS, asthma, pulmonary hypertension, fibrosis, neonatal diseases, and COPD. Each session of the symposium featured invited presentations by experts in their respective fields, complemented by poster presentations contributed in response to a call for abstracts.