Study objectives: Although pulmonary mycetoma has been well-described in immunocompetent hosts, the only description in HIV-infected patients has been of 10 patients from our institution, from 1992 to 1995. To further investigate the impact of HIV status on the presentation and course of pulmonary mycetoma, we conducted a follow-up study.
Design: Retrospective review of all cases of pulmonary mycetoma at Bellevue Hospital from 1992 to 1999.
Setting: Patients were evaluated on the inpatient chest service and in the outpatient chest and HIV clinics of Bellevue Hospital in New York City.
Patients: We identified 74 patients with pulmonary mycetoma; 20 of them were HIV-infected (27%).
Interventions: The 20 HIV-infected patients were treated with antiretroviral and/or antifungal therapy.
Measurements and results: Predisposing diseases were pulmonary tuberculosis (TB), Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), or both TB and PCP. Seventeen patients had a CD4+ cell count of < 100 cells/μL at presentation. Hemoptysis was present in 13 patients, but was massive in only 1 patient. Cough was common. Of the 18 patients for whom follow-up was available, 11 received antifungal treatment and 7 were observed without therapy. Six patients received both antiretroviral and antifungal therapy. Disease progression occurred in 50%. Only five patients exhibited radiographic or clinical improvement. All five were treated with both antiretroviral and antifungal therapy.
Conclusions: PCP is a risk factor for pulmonary mycetoma in the HIV-infected individual. HIV-infected patients with mycetomas have a significant rate of disease progression, although they rarely have life-threatening hemoptysis. A combination of antifungal and antiretroviral therapy may improve the clinical outcome in HIV-infected patients with pulmonary mycetoma.