Lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS) may improve pulmonary function in patients with severe emphysema. However, its effects in other types of obstructive lung disease are unknown. To delay the need for lung transplantation, we performed LVRS in a 14-year-old boy with disabling airflow obstruction/hyperinflation secondary to postinfectious bronchiolitis nonresponsive to medical therapy. Within days after LVRS, a major improvement of symptoms and lung function occurred and persisted for > 1 year. Our observation suggests that LVRS may be a novel treatment option in selected patients with extreme hyperinflation even if the underlying disease is not emphysema.