An 18-year-old woman, who had no history of allergy or asthma, with acute myelogenous leukemia (M3) received an allogeneic BMTx from her human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sister (HLA A1, A24, B57, B60, DR3, and DR7). Seventeen months after undergoing transplantation, she was admitted to the hospital with nonproductive cough, wheezing, and dyspnea. Pulmonary function tests revealed the following: total lung capacity, 4.46 L (87% of predicted); vital capacity and FVC, 2.85 L (70% of predicted); and FEV1, 2.29 L (75% of predicted). A peripheral blood count showed a total WBC count of 10,200 cells/μL with 82 neutrophils, 8 lymphocytes, 5 basophils, 4 eosinophils, and 1 monocyte. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with BAL and bronchial biopsy (BBx) excluded an infection or malignancy. Following a diagnosis of asthma, the patient was treated with albuterol and a corticosteroid inhaler (ie, triamcinolone acetonide). Her asthma improved, but her clinical course was subsequently complicated by several recurrent episodes of bacterial pneumonia requiring multiple hospitalizations. Approximately 16 months later, the patient developed recurrent leukemia and died of disseminated candidiasis.