The focus then shifts to an explanation of the various modes of ventilation, ranging from the conventional to the more sophisticated (eg, high-frequency jet oscillation). The authors appropriately address the advantages and disadvantages of the various modes in a straightforward, tabular fashion. Newer techniques of maintaining oxygenation and ventilation, ranging among inverse-ratio ventilation, permissive hypercapnia, and prone positioning, are coupled with monitoring strategies that are appropriate to the various modes. Emphasis also is placed on the prevention, recognition, and management of complications that are inherent to mechanical ventilation, as well as trouble-shooting techniques for issues such as alarms, patient ventilator dyssynchrony, and intractable hypoxemia. Finally, the authors carefully review the sometimes-thorny topic of when and how to liberate the patient from the ventilator.