Genetic variants of key hemostatic mediators increasingly have been proposed as risk factors for atherothrombosis. The Hormone and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study group recently reported that the initiation of estrogen replacement in postmenopausal women with known coronary heart disease is associated with an early increase in cardiovascular events. A putative genetic susceptibility factor has been proposed a potential mediator of this increased event risk. This review outlines the recent literature to support the premise for this important proposal. Genetic profiling has great potential to improve the safety and efficacy of individualized pharmacotherapy in postmenopausal women and other at-risk populations for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.