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Clinical Investigations: FUNGUS |

Outcome of Lung Transplantation in Patients With Mycetomas*

Denis Hadjiliadis, MD; Thomas A. Sporn, MD; John R. Perfect, MD; Victor F. Tapson, MD, FCCP; R. Duane Davis, MD, FCCP; Scott M. Palmer, MD, MHS
Author and Funding Information

*From the Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine (Drs. Hadjiliadis, Tapson, and Palmer), Department of Pathology (Dr. Sporn), Division of Infectious Diseases (Dr. Perfect), and Division of Thoracic Surgery (Dr. Davis), Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC.

Correspondence to: Scott M. Palmer, MD, MHS, Medical Director, Lung Transplantation Program, Box 3876, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 27710; e-mail: Palme002@mc.duke.edu



Chest. 2002;121(1):128-134. doi:10.1378/chest.121.1.128
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Background: Lung transplantation has become an acceptable treatment option for many end-stage lung diseases. Pulmonary mycetomas are found in patients with end-stage lung diseases, especially sarcoidosis. The clinical course and long-term outcome of these patients after transplantation remains unknown.

Methods: We reviewed retrospectively the pathology reports of the explanted lungs from all lung and heart-lung transplantations performed at our institution between January 20, 1992, and June 26, 2000. Patients were included in our study if mycetomas were present on the specimens. Information on transplant date and type, diagnosis, information on antifungal therapy and fungal infections pretransplant and posttransplant, and clinical course after transplantation was recorded.

Results: Mycetomas were present in 3.0% of transplant recipients (9 of 303 patients). The underlying pulmonary diagnoses were sarcoidosis (six patients), and emphysema, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, and pneumoconiosis (one patient each). Seven patients received bilateral lung transplants, one patient received a heart/lung transplant, and one patient received a single lung transplant. Aspergillus was isolated from culture in five patients pretransplant and from five patients posttransplant. Six patients received treatment with itraconazole, or IV or inhaled amphotericin B prior to transplantation. All patients who survived transplantation received posttransplant antifungal therapy. Four patients died in the first month after transplantation. Two patients died at 17 months and 24 months posttransplant, respectively; one patient received a second transplant 30 months later; and two patients are alive and free from fungal infections 17 months and 18 months, respectively, after transplantation. All of the medium-term survivors received lengthy therapy with inhaled and systemic amphotericin B and itraconazole before and after transplantation.

Conclusions: Lung transplant recipients with mycetomas have significantly reduced posttransplant survival. Careful selection of patients and aggressive antifungal therapies before and after transplantation have led to improved outcomes in patients with mycetomas. Additional research is needed to define the best therapeutic strategy for these patients during transplantation.

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