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Clinical Investigations: SLEEP AND BREATHING |

Respiratory Symptoms and Nocturnal Gastroesophageal Reflux*: A Population-Based Study of Young Adults in Three European Countries FREE TO VIEW

Thorarinn Gislason, MD; Christer Janson, MD; Paul Vermeire, MD, FCCP; Peter Plaschke, MD; Eythor Björnsson, MD; David Gislason, MD; Gunnar Boman, MD
Author and Funding Information

*From the Department of Lung Medicine (Drs. T. Gislason, Björnsson, and D. Gislason), Vifilsstadir Hospital, Gardabaer, Iceland; the Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory Medicine, and Allergology (Drs. Janson and Boman), Akademiska Sjukhuset, Uppsala, Sweden; the Department of Respiratory Medicine (Dr. Vermeire), University of Antwerp, Antwerp, Belgium; and the Asthma and Allergy Research Center (Dr. Plaschke), Sahlgrenska Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.

Correspondence to: Thorarinn Gislason, MD, Department of Lung Medicine, Vifilsstadir Hospital, 210 Gardabaer, Iceland



Chest. 2002;121(1):158-163. doi:10.1378/chest.121.1.158
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Published online

Study objective: To estimate the possible association between reported symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) after bedtime, sleep-disordered breathing, respiratory symptoms, and asthma.

Design: Cross-sectional international population survey.

Participants: Participants consisted of 2,661 subjects (age range, 20 to 48 years) from three countries (Iceland, Belgium, and Sweden), of whom 2,202 were randomly selected from the general population and 459 were added because of reported asthma.

Measurements: The investigation included a structured interview, spirometry, methacholine challenge, peak flow diary, skin-prick tests, and a questionnaire on sleep disturbances.

Results: In the random population sample, 101 subjects (4.6%) reported GER, which was defined as the occurrence of heartburn or belching after going to bed at least once per week. Subjects with nocturnal GER more often were overweight and had symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing than participants not reporting GER. Participants with GER were more likely to report wheezing (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.5), breathlessness at rest (adjusted OR, 2.8), and nocturnal breathlessness (adjusted OR, 2.9), and they had increased peak flow variability compared to the subjects without GER. Physician-diagnosed current asthma was reported by 9% of subjects with GER compared to 4% of those not reporting GER (p < 0.05). Subjects with the combination of asthma and GER had a higher prevalence of nocturnal cough, morning phlegm, sleep-related symptoms, and higher peak flow variability than subjects with asthma alone.

Conclusion: The occurrence of GER after bedtime is strongly associated with both asthma and respiratory symptoms, as well as symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. The partial narrowing or occlusion of the upper airway during sleep, followed by an increase in intrathoracic pressure, might predispose the patient to nocturnal GER and, consequently, to respiratory symptoms.

An association between gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and lung diseases has for some time been known to exist. As early as 1967, Urschel and Paulson1reported that of 636 patients scheduled for an operative treatment for GER, 60% also had symptoms related to pulmonary disease. Since then, many studies23 have shown a high prevalence ofGER among patients with asthma. In a recent report,4even asthmatics without reflux symptoms had a high prevalence (62%) of abnormal results for 24-h esophageal tests. The simultaneous occurrence of GER and asthma suggests a causal relationship. The aspiration of gastric contents or a vagally mediated bronchoconstriction has been suggested as an explanatory mechanism.5Medical antireflux therapy6and antireflux surgery,7 however, have only minimal effect or no effect on lung function, although asthma symptoms improve.

The majority of studies in this field have concentrated on highly selected populations at secondary or tertiary referral hospitals. There are few epidemiologic studies of the general population, and little is known about a possible association between respiratory symptoms and GER in an unselected random population. Between 1990 and 1993, an epidemiologic investigation into the prevalence of asthma and allergy, the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS), was conducted in different centers throughout the world.8In four of the participating centers (Reykjavik, Iceland; Uppsala and Göteborg, Sweden; and Antwerp, Belgium), a questionnaire relating to sleep disturbances was added to the second part of the ECRHS study.911 We have previously reported that GER is associated with an increased prevalence of sleep disturbances as well as with symptoms related to obstructive sleep apnea.910 In accordance with the results of other studies,1214 we also found that the quality of sleep often was decreased in subjects with asthma.11

The aim of the present investigation was to estimate the possible association between reported symptoms of GER after bedtime, sleep-disordered breathing, respiratory symptoms, and asthma.

Study Areas and Target Populations

The subjects in this study came from the following four centers: Reykjavik, the capital of Iceland, and its surrounding suburbs (approximate population, 160,000 inhabitants); Uppsala, the fourth largest city in Sweden (approximate population, 170,000 inhabitants); Göteborg, the second largest city in Sweden (the study area comprised the northern part of the city on the island of Hisingen; approximate population, 110,000 inhabitants); and Antwerp, the second largest city in Belgium (the study area comprised the center of the city and 13 municipalities in the southern suburban area; target population, 300,000 inhabitants).

Populations

In the ECRHS, a random sample of persons in the age range of 20 to 44 years was selected using the population register at each center (Table 1 ).911 In brief, a postal questionnaire was sent to 3,600 subjects each in Reykjavik, Uppsala, and Göteborg and to 8,029 subjects in Antwerp. The response rates to the questionnaire were 81%, 87%, 80%, and 75%, respectively.

From the responses from each site to the initial questionnaire, a random sample of subjects was invited to participate. A sample of symptomatic subjects also was identified as those who reported nocturnal attacks of breathlessness, attacks of asthma, or current use of medication for asthma. The response rates are shown in Table 1.

A structured interview was conducted among all participants to include measurements of lung function and allergy testing. A sleep questionnaire also was administered to all participants (see below), and the number of participants is noted in Table 1. The informed consent of all participants was obtained, and the study was approved by all the local ethics committees.

The screening questionnaire and the questionnaire used in the structured interview were based on the International Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease questionnaire.15 In the interview, the patients answered questions relating to respiratory symptoms, respiratory disorders, medication, and environmental factors.

The following asthma-related symptoms were used in this analysis: (1) wheezing or whistling in the chest; (2) being awakened by a feeling of tightness in the chest; (3) having had an attack of shortness of breath that came during the day when at rest; (4) having had an attack of shortness of breath followingstrenuous activity; and (5) having been awakened by an attack of shortness of breath. The recall period was 12 months for all these symptoms. Asthma was defined as having ever reported an occurrence of asthma in which the diagnosis had been confirmed by a doctor and also having had at least one asthma-related symptom in the preceding 12 months.11

The following cough-related symptoms were used in this analysis: (1) being awakened by an attack of coughing in the last 12 months (nocturnal cough); (2) usually coughing in the morning in the winter (morning cough); and (3) usually bringing up phlegm from the chest in the morning in the winter (morning phlegm).

Lung Function and Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness

FEV1 was measured using a computerized dry-rolling seal spirometer system (Spiro Medics system 2130; SensorMedics; Anaheim, CA) [Table 1]. The predicted values were calculated for each patient.16

Methacholine challenge was performed using a dosimeter (Mefar; Brescia, Italy).17 Patients with a decrease in FEV1 of > 20% accompanying an accumulated methacholine dose of ≤ 2 mg were defined as having bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR).

All the participants in Uppsala and Göteborg, a random sample of 25% of the participants in Reykjavik, and all of those with symptoms indicating asthma were asked to record peak expiratory flow (PEF)[ ie, the best of three measurements] twice daily during 1 week with a flowmeter (Mini-Wright Peak Flow Meter; Clement Clarke; London, UK). The number of patients who managed to record PEF measurements twice a day on at least 4 of 7 days was 155 in Reykjavik, 552 in Uppsala, and 533 in Göteborg (Table 1). PEF variability was calculated by dividing the difference between the highest and lowest daily PEF readings by the daily mean PEF value.18

Allergy Testing

Skin-prick tests (Phazet; Pharmacia Diagnostics; Uppsala, Sweden) were conducted on 2,144 individuals. Those with a positive result (ie, a mean weal diameter of ≥ 3 mm) to at least one of the following allergens were defined as having atopy: birch; timothy grass; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; cat; dog; Cladosporium herbarum; or Alternaria alternata.19

Sleep Questionnaire

After completing the interview and examination, all the subjects were asked to fill out a separate questionnaire addressing their quality of sleep during the last few months. The questionnaire was a slightly modified version of a questionnaire used in previous Swedish and Icelandic studies.2021 The questionnaire, which has been described in detail previously,10 comprised 14 multiple-choice questions in which the subjects were asked to estimate the frequency of different symptoms on the following 5-point scale: 1, never; 2, less than once a week; 3, 1 to 2 nights a week; 4, 3 to 5 nights a week; and 5, almost nightly/daily. The question about GER was“ Do you have heartburn or belching when you have gone to bed?” The questionnaire was translated and then back-translated from Swedish to Dutch to enable its use in Antwerp. The numbers of subjects in the random and symptomatic samples who completed the sleep questionnaire were 2,202 and 459, respectively (Table 2 ). Those subjects who reported GER 1 to 2 nights per week (3 points) or more often are in this article referred to as reporting nocturnal GER.

Statistical Analysis

The relationships among nocturnal GER, respiratory symptoms, and symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing were estimated in the randomly selected population. The symptomatic subjects were included in the comparison of asthmatic subjects with or without reported GER. The variation in the prevalence of symptoms and subjects with and without nocturnal GER was studied using the χ2 test and unpaired t test. When the analysis was limited to subjects with asthma, Fisher’s Exact Test was used instead of theχ 2 test. In these analyses, PEF variability was log-transformed to achieve normal distribution. Logistic regression was used when calculating the effect of nocturnal GER on symptoms and asthma while adjusting for possible confounders. A p value < 0.05 was regarded as statistically significant. A statistical software package (StatView, version 5.0; SAS Institute Inc; Cary, NC) was used for all calculations.

In the randomly selected population sample, nocturnal GER was reported by 3.4% in Reykjavik, 4.8% in Uppsala, 6.3% in Göteborg, and 4.3% in Antwerp, for a total of 101 subjects (4.6%). The age and gender of these patients were similar to those subjects not reporting nocturnal GER, but they were more often overweight (ie, higher body mass index [BMI]) and more often reported both day and night symptoms related to sleep-disordered breathing (Table 2). Those subjects who reported GER after bedtime had a prevalence of all respiratory symptoms and asthma two to three times higher than did subjects not reporting GER (Table 3 ). All these differences, except for GER and morning cough, remained significant after adjusting for the medical center, gender, age, smoking, BMI, and symptoms related to sleep-disordered breathing (Table 3). Thirteen subjects (0.6%) in the random population had theophylline therapy. Adjusting for the use of theophylline did not change any of the associations reported.

In the general population, subjects with nocturnal GER showed a significantly higher mean (± SD) peak flow variability than the subjects without nocturnal GER (5.4 ± 4.2% vs 4.2 ± 3.5%, respectively; p < 0.05), but there was no difference in the prevalence of atopy (39% vs 30%, respectively), BHR (19% vs 13%, respectively), or the predicted mean FEV1 (107 ± 12% vs 107 ± 12%, respectively).

When the random and symptomatic samples were combined, a total of 276 subjects with asthma were identified. Subjects with the combination of nocturnal GER and asthma had a significantly higher BMI and a higher prevalence of several sleep-related symptoms (Table 4 ). Subjects with the combination of both asthma and nocturnal GER had a higher prevalence of nocturnal cough and morning phlegm and an increased peak flow variability than did subjects with asthma alone. No significant differences were found in the prevalence of atopy, BHR, or mean FEV1 between these two groups of asthmatic subjects (Table 5 ).

Our study, which was based on random samples of young adults in three European countries, shows that individuals who report GER after bedtime have an increased likelihood of having respiratory symptoms and asthma. This nocturnal GER group also had a much higher prevalence of symptoms related to sleep-disordered breathing, like snoring, nighttime sweating, reported apneas, and daytime sleepiness. Our results draw attention to the partial narrowing or the complete occlusion of the upper airway during sleep, in both obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS)22and in the so-called upper airway resistance syndrome.23 The consequence was the same for patients in both situations: the patient tries to get air to the lungs, with increasing inspiratory effort.2223 In theory, the increasingly negative intrathoracic pressure possibly could suck the acid content of the stomach up to the distal esophagus. Based on this cross-sectional epidemiologic study, we can only speculate on whether the acid already in the distal esophagus exerts its harmful effects through an esophageal-tracheobronchial cough reflex24 or whether the gastric fluid reaches the larynx area where the acid is met by the turbulent inspiratory (snoring) airflow and becomes an aerosol that is inhaled down the trachea, thus directly causing mucosal airway damage.

There are several methodologic issues that should be discussed in this investigation. The main one is that our definition of nocturnal GER is based on self-reported symptoms; it is well-known that the association between reported GER and objective measurements, such as 24-h esophageal pH monitoring, is weak.4 Having in mind how very prevalent symptoms of GER are,24our rather strict criterion for the inclusion of GER symptoms at least once per week has probably resulted in a study population that represents the part of the general population that is more severely affected. A second issue is that in this study the use of three different languages carries the possibility of a translation bias. The questionnaire used in this study is based on the basic Nordic sleep questionnaire.25 The main change in that questionnaire, compared to many earlier sleep questionnaires, was the introduction of a 5-point scale to indicate how many nights or days per week the symptoms occurred. This was done in order to facilitate comparisons when the questionnaire was used in different countries. As we have reported from our previous analysis of the randomly selected sample, the variation in the prevalence of sleep disturbances between the two Swedish centers was of the same magnitude as that between the Swedish and the non-Swedish centers.910 Therefore, we do not think that translation bias was a major problem in this study. A validation study26 of the ECRHS interview-led questionnaire also showed good internal consistency, suggesting that the experience of reporting symptoms is not affected by cross-cultural differences.

The definition of asthma used in this study was based on self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma. This definition has been suggested as optimal for epidemiologic studies as it has a high specificity for clinical asthma.27In order to exclude subjects who had asthma only in childhood, we included only individuals who reported having had asthma-related symptoms in the preceding 12 months. As we have not included adults over the age of 44 years, we have probably avoided most of the problems of separating asthma from COPD. Theophylline is known to cause GER28 and might be a confounding factor in our study. However, as only five of the asthmatic subjects reporting GER had undergone theophylline therapy, the power to detect a significant relationship between the use of theophylline and GER was low in this study.

The clear association between GER and asthma shown in the present investigation and in several previous studies14 gives rise to the question of how patients who have both these diseases should be managed. The inclusion of a 3-month trial of a high-dose proton pump inhibitor in the management of adult asthma patients if GER symptoms are present has been recommended.29 Investigations evaluating the effect of antireflux therapy in patients with asthma and GER have shown a subjective improvement but no effect on lung function.6 The strong association between symptoms of sleep-related breathing disturbances and reported GER after bedtime in our study also indicates that asthmatic subjects with nocturnal GER and daytime sleepiness or other symptoms related to sleep-disordered breathing should be referred for sleep studies, including the monitoring of esophageal pH. In asthmatic subjects with sleep-disordered breathing, a treatment trial with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) should be considered. Among the outcome variables of such a CPAP study, both respiratory symptoms and symptoms of sleep-related breathing disturbances should be included. Although previous studies3031 have not involved the possible role of nocturnal GER, there have been reports32 on improved asthma control after CPAP therapy and also on the presence of less BHR among snoring and OSAS patients after receiving CPAP therapy for 2 to 3 months. Even if a patient is only undergoing a 24-h monitoring of esophageal pH and the results reveal a sleep-related reflux, such a finding warrants at least basic questions about symptoms of sleep-disordered breathing.

We conclude that GER reported to occur after bedtime is strongly associated with a high prevalence of both asthma and respiratory symptoms, as well as symptoms of OSAS. The partial narrowing or occlusion of the upper airway during sleep, followed by more negative swings in intrathoracic pressure, might predispose the patient to nocturnal GER and, consequently, to respiratory symptoms.

Abbreviations: BHR = bronchial hyperresponsiveness; BMI = body mass index; CPAP = continuous positive airway pressure; ECRHS = European Community Respiratory Health Survey; GER = gastroesophageal reflux; OSAS = obstructive sleep apnea syndrome; PEF = peak expiratory flow

The Icelandic part of this study was supported financially by the Icelandic Research Council. The Swedish part of this study was supported by the Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation, the Swedish Medical Research Council, and the Swedish Association Against Asthma and Allergy. The Belgian part of this study was

supported by the Belgian Science Policy Office and the National Fund for Scientific Research.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Population Selection and Participation Rates (Random and Symptomatic Sample)*
* 

Values given as No. (%).

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. Population Characteristics in Subjects Without and With Reported Nocturnal GER After Bedtime Once a Week or More*
* 

Values given as mean (± SD) or percentages.

 

p < 0.001.

 

p < 0.01.

§ 

p < 0.05.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 3. Respiratory Symptoms and Asthma in Subjects Without and With Reported Nocturnal GER*
* 

Values given as %, unless otherwise indicated. OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; nGER = nocturnal GER.

 

p < 0.001.

 

p < 0.05.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 4. Asthmatic Subjects Without and With Reported Nocturnal GER After Bedtime Once a Week or More Often*
* 

Values given as mean ± SD or %. See Table 3 for abbreviations not used in the text.

 

p < 0.001.

 

p < 0.01.

§ 

p < 0.05.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 5. Respiratory Symptoms in Asthmatic Subjects Without and With Reported Nocturnal GER After Bedtime Once a Week or More Often*
* 

Values given as % or mean ± SD. See Table 3 for abbreviations not used in the text.

 

p < 0.05.

 

p < 0.01.

We thank Mrs. Elsbeth Scholtes at the Department of Medicine, Uppsala University, for assistance with the translation of the sleep questionnaire into Dutch. Professor Wilfried de Backer is acknowledged for his help in carrying out the sleep survey in Antwerp.

Urschel, HC, Paulson, DL (1967) Gastroesophageal reflux and hiatal hernia: complications and therapy.Thorac Cardiovasc Surg53,21-32
 
Sontag, SJ Gastroesophageal reflux and asthma.Am J Med1997;103(suppl),84S-90S
 
Harding, SM, Sontag, SJ Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux.Am J Gastroenterol2000;95(suppl),S23-S32
 
Harding, SM, Guzzo, MR, Richter, JE The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in asthma patients without reflux symptoms.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;162,34-39. [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM Nocturnal asthma: role of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux.Chronobiol Int1999;16,641-662. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
 
Field, SK, Sutherland, LR Does medical antireflux therapy improve asthma in asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux.Chest1998;114,275-283. [PubMed]
 
Field, SK, Gelfand, GAJ, McFadden, SD The effects of antireflux surgery on asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux.Chest1999;116,766-774. [PubMed]
 
Burney, PGJ, Luczynska, CM, Chinn, S, et al The European Community Respiratory Health Survey.Eur Respir J1994;7,954-960. [PubMed]
 
Janson, C, Gislason, T, De Backer, W, et al Daytime sleepiness, snoring and gastroesophageal reflux among young adults in three European countries.J Intern Med1995;237,277-285. [PubMed]
 
Janson, C, Gislason, T, De Backer, W, et al Prevalence of sleep disturbances among young adults in three European countries.Sleep1995;18,589-597. [PubMed]
 
Janson, C, De Backer, W, Gislason, T, et al Increased prevalence of sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness in subjects with bronchial asthma: a population study of young adults in three European countries.Eur Respir J1996;9,2132-2138. [PubMed]
 
Douglas, NJ Nocturnal asthma [editorial].Thorax1993;48,100-102. [PubMed]
 
Fitzpatrick, MF, Engleman, H, Whyte, KF, et al Morbidity in nocturnal asthma: sleep quality and daytime cognitive performance.Thorax1991;46,569-573. [PubMed]
 
Klink, M, Quan, SF Prevalence of reported sleep disturbances in a general adult population and their relationship to obstructive airways disease.Chest1987;91,540-546. [PubMed]
 
Burney, PGJ, Laitinen, LA, Pedrizet, S, et al Validity and repeatability of the IUATLD (1984) bronchial symptoms questionnaire: an international comparison.Eur Respir J1989;2,940-945. [PubMed]
 
European Community for Coal and Steel. Standardization of lung function tests.Clin Respir Physiol1983;19(suppl),22-27
 
Knox, AJ, Wisniewski, A, Cooper, S, et al A comparison of the Yan and a dosimeter method for methacholine challenge in experienced and inexperienced subjects.Eur Respir J1991;4,497-502. [PubMed]
 
Higgins, BG, Britton, JR, Chinn, S, et al Comparison of bronchial reactivity and peak expiratory flow variability measurements for epidemiological studies.Am Rev Respir Dis1992;145,588-593. [PubMed]
 
Björnsson, E, Janson, C, Håkansson, L, et al Serum eosinophil cationic protein in relation to bronchial asthma in a young Swedish population.Allergy1994;49,730-736. [PubMed]
 
Janson, C, Gislason, T, Boman, G, et al Sleep disturbances in patients with asthma.Respir Med1990;84,37-42. [PubMed]
 
Gislason, T, Reynisdóttir, H, Kristbjarnarson, H, et al Sleep habits and sleep disturbances among the elderly: an epidemiological survey.J Intern Med1993;234,31-39. [PubMed]
 
Berg, S, Hybinette, JC, Gislason, T, et al Intrathoracic pressure variation in obese habitual snorers.J Otorhinolaryngol1995;24,238-241
 
Guilleminault, C, Stoohs, R, Clerk, A, et al A cause of excessive daytime sleepiness: the upper airway resistance syndrome.Chest1993;104,781-787. [PubMed]
 
Howard, PJ, Heading, RC Epidemiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.World J Surg1992;16,288-293. [PubMed]
 
Partinen, M, Gislason, T Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire (BNSQ): a quantitated measure of subjective sleep complaints.J Sleep Res1995;4(suppl),150-155
 
Sunyer, J, Basagana, X, Burney, P, et al European Community Respiratory Health Survey: international assessment of the internal consistency of respiratory symptoms.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;162,930-935. [PubMed]
 
Torén, K, Brissman, J, Järvholm, B Asthma and asthma-like symptoms in adults assessed by questionnaires: a literature review.Chest1993;104,600-608. [PubMed]
 
Ruzkowski, CJ, Sanowski, RA, Austin, J, et al The effects of inhaled albuterol and oral theophylline on gastroesophageal reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and obstructive lung disease.Arch Intern Med1992;152,783-785. [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM Gastroesophageal reflux and asthma: insight into association.J Allergy Clin Immunol1999;104,251-259. [PubMed]
 
Chan, CS, Woolcock, AJ, Sullivan, CE Nocturnal asthma: role of snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.Am Rev Respir Dis1988;137,1502-1504. [PubMed]
 
Guilleminault, C, Quera-Salva, MA, Powell, N, et al Nocturnal asthma: snoring, small pharynx and nasal CPAP.Eur Respir J1988;1,902-907. [PubMed]
 
Lin, CC, Lin, CY Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and bronchial hyperreactivity.Lung1995;173,117-126. [PubMed]
 

Figures

Tables

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 1. Population Selection and Participation Rates (Random and Symptomatic Sample)*
* 

Values given as No. (%).

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 2. Population Characteristics in Subjects Without and With Reported Nocturnal GER After Bedtime Once a Week or More*
* 

Values given as mean (± SD) or percentages.

 

p < 0.001.

 

p < 0.01.

§ 

p < 0.05.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 3. Respiratory Symptoms and Asthma in Subjects Without and With Reported Nocturnal GER*
* 

Values given as %, unless otherwise indicated. OR = odds ratio; CI = confidence interval; nGER = nocturnal GER.

 

p < 0.001.

 

p < 0.05.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 4. Asthmatic Subjects Without and With Reported Nocturnal GER After Bedtime Once a Week or More Often*
* 

Values given as mean ± SD or %. See Table 3 for abbreviations not used in the text.

 

p < 0.001.

 

p < 0.01.

§ 

p < 0.05.

Table Graphic Jump Location
Table 5. Respiratory Symptoms in Asthmatic Subjects Without and With Reported Nocturnal GER After Bedtime Once a Week or More Often*
* 

Values given as % or mean ± SD. See Table 3 for abbreviations not used in the text.

 

p < 0.05.

 

p < 0.01.

References

Urschel, HC, Paulson, DL (1967) Gastroesophageal reflux and hiatal hernia: complications and therapy.Thorac Cardiovasc Surg53,21-32
 
Sontag, SJ Gastroesophageal reflux and asthma.Am J Med1997;103(suppl),84S-90S
 
Harding, SM, Sontag, SJ Asthma and gastroesophageal reflux.Am J Gastroenterol2000;95(suppl),S23-S32
 
Harding, SM, Guzzo, MR, Richter, JE The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux in asthma patients without reflux symptoms.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;162,34-39. [PubMed]
 
Harding, SM Nocturnal asthma: role of nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux.Chronobiol Int1999;16,641-662. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
 
Field, SK, Sutherland, LR Does medical antireflux therapy improve asthma in asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux.Chest1998;114,275-283. [PubMed]
 
Field, SK, Gelfand, GAJ, McFadden, SD The effects of antireflux surgery on asthmatics with gastroesophageal reflux.Chest1999;116,766-774. [PubMed]
 
Burney, PGJ, Luczynska, CM, Chinn, S, et al The European Community Respiratory Health Survey.Eur Respir J1994;7,954-960. [PubMed]
 
Janson, C, Gislason, T, De Backer, W, et al Daytime sleepiness, snoring and gastroesophageal reflux among young adults in three European countries.J Intern Med1995;237,277-285. [PubMed]
 
Janson, C, Gislason, T, De Backer, W, et al Prevalence of sleep disturbances among young adults in three European countries.Sleep1995;18,589-597. [PubMed]
 
Janson, C, De Backer, W, Gislason, T, et al Increased prevalence of sleep disturbances and daytime sleepiness in subjects with bronchial asthma: a population study of young adults in three European countries.Eur Respir J1996;9,2132-2138. [PubMed]
 
Douglas, NJ Nocturnal asthma [editorial].Thorax1993;48,100-102. [PubMed]
 
Fitzpatrick, MF, Engleman, H, Whyte, KF, et al Morbidity in nocturnal asthma: sleep quality and daytime cognitive performance.Thorax1991;46,569-573. [PubMed]
 
Klink, M, Quan, SF Prevalence of reported sleep disturbances in a general adult population and their relationship to obstructive airways disease.Chest1987;91,540-546. [PubMed]
 
Burney, PGJ, Laitinen, LA, Pedrizet, S, et al Validity and repeatability of the IUATLD (1984) bronchial symptoms questionnaire: an international comparison.Eur Respir J1989;2,940-945. [PubMed]
 
European Community for Coal and Steel. Standardization of lung function tests.Clin Respir Physiol1983;19(suppl),22-27
 
Knox, AJ, Wisniewski, A, Cooper, S, et al A comparison of the Yan and a dosimeter method for methacholine challenge in experienced and inexperienced subjects.Eur Respir J1991;4,497-502. [PubMed]
 
Higgins, BG, Britton, JR, Chinn, S, et al Comparison of bronchial reactivity and peak expiratory flow variability measurements for epidemiological studies.Am Rev Respir Dis1992;145,588-593. [PubMed]
 
Björnsson, E, Janson, C, Håkansson, L, et al Serum eosinophil cationic protein in relation to bronchial asthma in a young Swedish population.Allergy1994;49,730-736. [PubMed]
 
Janson, C, Gislason, T, Boman, G, et al Sleep disturbances in patients with asthma.Respir Med1990;84,37-42. [PubMed]
 
Gislason, T, Reynisdóttir, H, Kristbjarnarson, H, et al Sleep habits and sleep disturbances among the elderly: an epidemiological survey.J Intern Med1993;234,31-39. [PubMed]
 
Berg, S, Hybinette, JC, Gislason, T, et al Intrathoracic pressure variation in obese habitual snorers.J Otorhinolaryngol1995;24,238-241
 
Guilleminault, C, Stoohs, R, Clerk, A, et al A cause of excessive daytime sleepiness: the upper airway resistance syndrome.Chest1993;104,781-787. [PubMed]
 
Howard, PJ, Heading, RC Epidemiology of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.World J Surg1992;16,288-293. [PubMed]
 
Partinen, M, Gislason, T Basic Nordic sleep questionnaire (BNSQ): a quantitated measure of subjective sleep complaints.J Sleep Res1995;4(suppl),150-155
 
Sunyer, J, Basagana, X, Burney, P, et al European Community Respiratory Health Survey: international assessment of the internal consistency of respiratory symptoms.Am J Respir Crit Care Med2000;162,930-935. [PubMed]
 
Torén, K, Brissman, J, Järvholm, B Asthma and asthma-like symptoms in adults assessed by questionnaires: a literature review.Chest1993;104,600-608. [PubMed]
 
Ruzkowski, CJ, Sanowski, RA, Austin, J, et al The effects of inhaled albuterol and oral theophylline on gastroesophageal reflux in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and obstructive lung disease.Arch Intern Med1992;152,783-785. [PubMed]
 
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